C. The Third Reich (1933-1945)1. Hitler quickly consolidated powera. Reichstag fire occurred during violent electoralcampaign in 1933· Incident used by the Nazis to crack down onthe communistsb. The S.A. stepped up its terrorism of politicalopponentsc. Enabling Act (March 1933) passed by Reichstag· Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for fouryears· Only the Nazi party was legald. Hitler outlawed strikes and abolished independentlabor unions.e. Publishers, universities, and writers brought intoline· Democratic, socialist, and Jewish literature put on blacklists.· Students and professors burned forbidden books in publicsquares.· Modern art and architecture were prohibited (dubbed "degenerate art" by the Nazis)2. Joseph Goebbles: minister of propaganda effectively glorified Hitler and the Nazi state· Leni Riefenstal’s Triumph of the Will (a documentary ofthe Nuremburg rally of 1934) was used by the regime as propaganda to make Hitler look larger than life and glorify theNazi regime.3. “Night of Long Knives” (June 1934)a. Hitler was warned that the army and big business were suspicious of the S.A.b. To please conservatives, Hitler’s elite personal guard—the S.S.—arrested and shot without trial about 1,000 SA leaders and other political enemies.c. The S.S. grew dramatically in influence as Hitler'sprivate army and secret police· Led by Heinrich Himmler4. The S.S. joined with the political police, the Gestapo, to expand its network of special courts andconcentration camps.5.
Hitler Youth: Nazis indoctrinated German youthswith views of German racial superiority and Jews as
Unit 10 Notes/p.10the source of Germany’s problemsa. Eventually, membership in the Hitler Youthb. Children were encouraged to turn in their teacherseffectively became mandatory· This is an example of how totalitarian regimesdemanded participation by the masses (in contrast to 17th century absolutism where regimes merely sought obedience)or even their parents if they seemed disloyal to the Reich6. Persecution of Jewsa. By the end of 1934, most Jewish lawyers, doctors,professors, civil servants, and musicians had lost their jobs and the right to practice their professions.b. Nuremburg Laws of 1935 deprived Jews of allrights of citizenship.· Marriage or sex between Jews and other Germans was prohibited· Jews could not hire German women under the age of 45 as domestic workers· Jews were forbidden from displaying the Reich or national flagc. Other laws were passed: Jews could not use hospitals; could not be educated past the age of 14; were prohibited from using parks, libraries and beaches; war memorials were to have Jewish names removedd. By 1939, 50% of Germany’s 500,000 Jews hademigrated (many were the "cream of the crop")· Huge emigration fees and confiscation of Jewish property helped the government to finance economy recovery.