C the third reich 1933 1945 1 hitler quickly

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C. The Third Reich (1933-1945) 1. Hitler quickly consolidated power a. Reichstag fire occurred during violent electoral campaign in 1933 · Incident used by the Nazis to crack down on the communists b. The S.A. stepped up its terrorism of political opponents c. Enabling Act (March 1933) passed by Reichstag · Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years · Only the Nazi party was legal d. Hitler outlawed strikes and abolished independent labor unions. e. Publishers, universities, and writers brought into line · Democratic, socialist, and Jewish literature put on blacklists. · Students and professors burned forbidden books in public squares. · Modern art and architecture were prohibited (dubbed "degenerate art" by the Nazis) 2. Joseph Goebbles : minister of propaganda effectively glorified Hitler and the Nazi state · Leni Riefenstal’s Triumph of the Will (a documentary of the Nuremburg rally of 1934) was used by the regime as propaganda to make Hitler look larger than life and glorify the Nazi regime. 3. “Night of Long Knives” (June 1934) a. Hitler was warned that the army and big business were suspicious of the S.A. b. To please conservatives, Hitler’s elite personal guard— the S.S. —arrested and shot without trial about 1,000 SA leaders and other political enemies. c. The S.S. grew dramatically in influence as Hitler's private army and secret police · Led by Heinrich Himmler 4. The S.S. joined with the political police, the Gestapo , to expand its network of special courts and concentration camps. 5. Hitler Youth: Nazis indoctrinated German youths with views of German racial superiority and Jews as
Unit 10 Notes /p.10 the source of Germany’s problems a. Eventually, membership in the Hitler Youthb. Children were encouraged to turn in their teachers effectively became mandatory · This is an example of how totalitarian regimes demanded participation by the masses (in contrast to 17th century absolutism where regimes merely sought obedience) or even their parents if they seemed disloyal to the Reich 6. Persecution of Jews a. By the end of 1934, most Jewish lawyers, doctors, professors, civil servants, and musicians had lost their jobs and the right to practice their professions. b. Nuremburg Laws of 1935 deprived Jews of all rights of citizenship. · Marriage or sex between Jews and other Germans was prohibited · Jews could not hire German women under the age of 45 as domestic workers · Jews were forbidden from displaying the Reich or national flag c. Other laws were passed: Jews could not use hospitals; could not be educated past the age of 14; were prohibited from using parks, libraries and beaches; war memorials were to have Jewish names removed d. By 1939, 50% of Germany’s 500,000 Jews had emigrated (many were the "cream of the crop") · Huge emigration fees and confiscation of Jewish property helped the government to finance economy recovery.

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