Furthermore standardisation does not appear with any significant values in the

Furthermore standardisation does not appear with any

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Furthermore, standardisation does not appear with any significant values in the model and its inclusion deteriorates the model. This – together with the low-reliability score of the standardisation construct – indicates that the issue of standardisation is a complex one, and does not easily lend itself to analysis without introducing contingencies such as for instance market and industry environment or company competencies (Solberg, 2004) or information level and degree of centralisation of marketing decisions (Solberg, 2000, 2002). It also underscores the problems in analysing this particular dimension of international marketing strategy. Indeed, this debate is a heated one (Douglas and Wind, 1988) and the analysis very complex, and findings are often in contradiction to the advanced hypotheses (Samiee and Roth, 1992; Cavusgil and Zou, 1994; Ryan and Ratz, 1987; Solberg, 2002). The hypotheses concerning focus strategies are partly supported. First, focus (or niche) strategies do not seem to lead to alliances in international markets, suggesting that nichers do not “automatically” need additional resources in their IMR 25,5 536
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international endeavour – at least not in the form of strategic alliances ( H3a then is not supported). That will then possibly depend on other parts of their strategy mix, such as for instance pace of internationalisation. Born Globals would here be a case in point, as they in their quest for rapid market coverage need to complement their resources by entering into such alliances (Oviatt and McDougall, 1999; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996, 2004; Madsen et al. , 2000; Gabrielsson and Manek Kirpalani, 2004). Second, we find that the somewhat bolder strategy hypothesis ( H3c – challenger) is being supported, indicating that the competitive advantages of focus firms lead them to take a more aggressive stance to internationalisation. This is moreover corroborated by the negative link between focus strategies and the stepwise approach ( 2 0.22), suggesting that focus firms are pursuing a “leapfrogging” oriented strategy (Welch and Luostarinen, 1988). This is in contradiction with Solberg and Durrieu’s (2006) findings, but substantiates the idea of more aggressive firms operating within a niche in global markets. However, Solberg and Durrieu’s (2006) repertoire of strategies did not include challenger (or integration) strategies and their study is therefore not directly comparable with the present one. We further observe that some of the internationalisation strategies impact on each other. We have already commented H4 that follower strategies play an important part in developing other strategies: negative impact on stepwise strategies and positive impact on integration strategies and challenger strategies (the latter indirectly). The firm may take bolder steps in international markets, given that other firms (MLs) have “paved the way” for it, leaving it with less risk to be taken. However, challenger strategies are only indirectly – through strategic alliances – affected by follower strategies, suggesting that followers do not have the necessary resources at their disposal to challenge the MLs in foreign markets. Integration may in that context
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