National Liberation in Greece Inspired by nationalism, the Greeks rebelled against the Ottoman Turks. -The Greeks had been living under the domination of the Turks since the 15 th century -they had survived as a people, united by their language and the Greek Orthodox religion -growth of national aspirations and a desire for independence would inspire some Greeks -this rising national movement led to the formation of secret societies, then revolt in 1821 -Alexander Ypsilanti, a Greek patriot and general in the Russian army, led the revolt Even though the Great Powers, particularly Metternich, opposed all revolutions, many Europeans, inspired by thoughts of classical Greece and romanticism, supported the Greek cause. ©SarahStudyGuides
19 -the Greek cause became a holy one -educated Americans and Europeans were in love with the culture of classical Greece -Russians were stirred by the piety of their Orthodox brethren -writers and artists responded enthusiastically to the Greek national struggle -the famous English romantic poet Lord Byron even joined the Greeks and died fighting With the eventual backing of Great Britain, France, and Russia, Greece gained its independence in 1830. -In 1827, England, France, and Russia responded to popular demands and directed Turkey to accept an armistice -When the Turks refused, they trapped the Turkish fleet at Navarino and destroyed it -Russia declared another of its periodic wars of expansion against the Turks -this led to the establishment of a Russian protectorate over much of present-day Romania, which had also been under Turkish rule -in 1832, a German prince was installed as king of the new country The Greeks had won: a small nation had gained independence in a heroic war of liberation against a foreign empire Liberal Reform in Great Britain : 18 th century British society had been both flexible and remarkably stable -It was dominated by land-owning aristocracy, but that class wasn’t closed or rigidly defined -Successful business people could buy and become gentry -Even the common people had more than the usual opportunities of the preindustrial world -However, Parliament was manipulated by the king and was thoroughly undemocratic -By the 1780s, there was growing interest in some kind of political reform After 1815, the British aristocracy repressively defended the status quo. -The French Revolution worried the British gentry - The Tory Part , completely controlled by the land aristocracy, was particularly fearful of radical movements -The nobility defended its ruling position by repressing every kind of popular protest Only 8% of males could vote in the 1780s in Britain -restricted to white male landowners 2 Houses of Parliament ©SarahStudyGuides
20 1) House of Lords -must be a lord or gentry (=British nobility) -could be inherited 2) House of Commons -lower nobility -elected The suffrage movement in Britain spread The nobility tried to stop this 1817 : the Tory government temporarily suspended traditional rights of peaceable assembly and
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