24 implications of hiv testing proponents universal

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24 Implications of HIV testing Proponents Universal testing will help define extent of AIDS epidemic • Identify infected & their partners can be counseled to stop spread • Offer early treatment to slow progression to AIDS • Better use of resources Opponents • Who should be tested? Homosexuals? People in STD clinics? • Discrimination factor = denied work, housing or insurance • +ve HIV test = no health or life insurance • Who is entitled to know that an individual has tested +ve?
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25 Mandatory testing for HIV Members of armed forces since 1985 Testing of immigrants since 1987 Blood and plasma donors since 1990 Sperm, organ or tissue donors Federal prison inmates are tested on admission and within 30 days of release on parole Peace Corps, Job Corps or foreign service
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26 Who should voluntarily get tested? People with STDs • Injection drug users • People who think they are at risk • Had blood transfusion before blood screening days • Women of child bearing age with - sex partners = bisexual, drug users or hemophiliacs - or they themselves are prostitutes or drug users
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27 Objectives of Therapeutic Drugs • Drug must kill the pathogen or prevent it from multiplying • Interfere with biochemical reactions unique to pathogen • Must do no or minimal damage to the body When to institute AIDS therapy Early = minimize OI & damage to immune system Disadvantage = side effects, HIV resistance, drug lifespan
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28 Steps of HIV infection of a host cell 1. HIV particle fuses with host cell membrane and inserts its genome 2. RT transcribes viral RNA into DNA 3. Integrase inserts viral DNA into host cell genome = provirus 4. Provirus DNA is transcribed into RNA 5. Viral RNA is translated into HIV proteins 6. HIV particle assembly and budding out of host cell
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29 Categories of Anti-HIV Drugs • Reverse transcriptase inhibitors – Nucleoside analogues – Non-nucleoside analogues • Fusion Inhibitors • Integrase Inhibitors • Protease Inhibitors
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30 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RO8MP3wMvqg HIV replication cycle & possible drug targets
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