their approved Social Development and Management Programs SDMP Further as of

Their approved social development and management

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their approved Social Development and Management Programs (SDMP). Further, as of 2015, MGB claimed that 25.96 Billion seedlings were planted by 99 mining companies in more than 23, 927.56 hectares of mined-out and other areas upholding the idea of adequate protection of the environment, before, during mining operations and beyond the life of the mine.
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III. RESEARCH ANALYSIS a. Mining in Benguet and its Effects in the Environment and to the Community i. Status of the Environment and the Community in Benguet Padcal Mine is the first underground block cave operation in the Far East. It produces copper concentrates containing copper, gold, and silver (“Padcal,” (n.d.) para. 1 ). It is located in two municipalities in Benguet – Tuba and Itogon – with total land area of 13, 228 hectares. However, only 580 hectares or 5% of the total land area are developed/affected for mining operations including the mine itself, mill, tailings facilities, residential and other industrial areas. Mineral Production Sharing Agreements (MPSA) cover the property’s 7, 967 hectares, while Exploration Permit Applications (EXPA) cover 5, 261 hectares. This covers three (3) major areas of exploration: Bumolo, Sto.Tomas II and Clifton. The discovery of Sto. Tomas II orebody extended the life of the mine from 2020 to 2022 as declared on October 28, 2015, due to an additional 20 Million tonnes declared proved reserves (Philex Mining Corp., 2015). Itogon is the largest municipality, in terms of land area, in Benguet. It is known to be a mining town, being the site of large- scale mining operations in the country. The first mining firm in the
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Philippines was established in the town under the name, Benguet Consolidated Mining Company (BCMC), by Americans Nelson Peterson and Harry Clyde which opened in 1903. Ironically, its second source of livelihood is agriculture like almost any other municipalities in Benguet. Its third source of livelihood is tourism exhibiting the Binga Dam, open pit mines, hot springs, and mummies. According to the 2015 Census, it has a population of 59, 820 people (“Itogon, Benguet”, n.d.). Tuba is known to be the Gateway to Baguio as the three major highways that give access to the adjacent city of Baguio are largely traversed in the municipality. According to the 2015 Census, it has a population of 47, 648 people. Major contributor to its economy is also mining. However, a few abandoned mining sites such as those of Benguet Exploration Mine and Black Mountain, Inc. have been left unattended for years, which pose a threat to the local population and the environment. Agriculture and tourism are also subsidiary contributors to its economy with the presence of waterfalls, hot springs, caves and high peaks of mountains in its land area. (“Tuba, Benguet”, n.d.) Benguet State University stated that less than 50 percent of Benguet’s original forest cover remains as based on the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) statistics. Benguet has a total land forest area of 214,523 hectares and only 100,977 hectares are the remaining forest. In water quality, Bued River, was currently classified by the DENR as a water quality management area and more rivers in the area are
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