Josephus: was a first-century Romano-Jewishscholar, historianand hagiographerwho was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestlydescent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman Waras head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 to Roman forcesled by Vespasianafter the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claims the Jewish Messianicpropheciesthat initiated the First Roman-Jewish Warmade reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome. In response Vespasian decided to keep Josephus as a hostage and interpreter. After Vespasian did become Emperor in 69, he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius.Flavius Josephus fully defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship. He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the Siege of Jerusalem, which resulted—when the Jewish revolt did not surrender—in the city's destructionand the looting and destruction ofHerod's Temple(Second Temple)Why was the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls so important? , How did Herod the Great negotiate the tension that came with being a Roman-appointed puppet king over the Judeans? What factors best explain the revolt of the Jews in Judea against Roman rule in 66 CE?
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- Spring '08
- Judaism, Jerusalem temple, jewish life