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-Parkinson’s and Huntington’s Disease are both neurodegenerative diseases of the BASALGANGLIA. -Parkinson’s Diseaseinvolves the loss of the substantia nigra, which provides dopamine to other basal ganglia structures. Symptoms include resting tremor, muscular rigidity, slowness of movement, difficulty initiating movement, masklike face. There is no single cause, but risk factors include toxins, traumatic brain injury, stroke, tumor, and so on. -Huntington’s Diseaseinvolves the loss of the caudate and putamen, which are both in the basal ganglia. The symptoms include uncontrollable jerky movements of limbs. There are also cognitive and emotional effects associated with Huntington’s Disease. This disease is autosomal dominant (only one parent has to have it to pass it on) and fatal. The Endocrine System-There are many endocrine glands in our body. Some of the most important are the hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas, gut and gonads. -There are three chemically different types of hormones: proteins & peptides(string of amino acids), amines(single amino acid), and steroids(cholesterol base). -Hormones can have metabotropic receptors or intracellular and nuclear receptors -Hormones are secreted into the blood and circulate throughout the body. This makes theireffects more widespread throughout the body. -The posterior pituitary glandis most commonly associated with oxytocin and vasopressin, two hormones made by neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus. The posterior pituitary gets the hormones and releases them into the blood, where they can affect social behaviors.
-Oxytocinis a hormone that aids in the initiation of labor, milk letdown, and pair bonding. -Oxytocin plays an important role in milk let down. When a baby suckles, stimulation signals the hypothalamus and pituitary to release oxytocin. Looking, hearing, thinking about babies can increase oxytocin release as well. -Vasopressinis a hormone that promotes water conservation (anti diuretic), increases BP, pair bonding (in males)-The anterior pituitary glandmakes and releases hormones under the control of hormones that come down from the hypothalamus→ releasing factors -Releasing hormonesare regulated by neural and hormonal input-Tropic hormonesare hormones that cause the release of hormones from other organs and glands -Ex. thyroid stimulating hormones -Hypothalamus sends thyroid stimulating releasing hormone → anterior pituitary secretes thyroid stimulating hormone→ release thyroxine in thyroid. -A negative feedbackis used to turn the hormonal system off. A negative feedback is somewhat like a thermostat. Warm air makes the room hotter, but once the warm air circulates, the increase in temperature causes the thermostat to turn off.