neurogenesis, or by reorganizing or growing new neural connections Cultural influences can show up in fMRIs Are there gender differences in the brain? Average sex differences in the brain do exist, BUT they may be driven by culture Ch 5 - sleep, drug effects Notes: 10/16/18- Chapter 5: Consciousness and Sleep What does it mean to be conscious? -Be awake
-Be able to sense -Be able to impact environment Consciousness is defined as our awareness of ourselves and the environment Biological Rhythms. A periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system Circadian Rhythms. Circadian Rhythm: A biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hours Example: Sleep-wake cycle Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN): Located in hypothalamus, contains a biological clock governing circadian rhythms When the Clock Is Out of Sync. Internal Desynchronization A state when biological rhythms are not in phase with one another Influenced by changes in one’s normal routine Flights across time zones New work shifts Moods and Long-Term Rhythms. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Disorder in which a person experiences: Depression during particular seasons, typically winter Possible Causes: Circadian rhythms out of sync Abnormality in production of, or response to, melatonin Treatment involves phototherapy , exposure to fluorescent light Does the Menstrual Cycle Affect Moods? Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
Vague cluster of physical and emotional symptoms associated with the days preceding menstruation: Fatigue Headache Irritability Depression Culture and PMS. PMS symptoms reported most often: North America Western Europe Australia Many women do have physical symptoms Cramps Breast tenderness Water retention Emotional symptoms are quite rare Fewer than 5 percent The Realms of Sleep. The sleep cycle consists of: Periods of rapid eye movement (REM sleep) Periods of fewer eye movements (non-REM sleep) Recurs, on average, every 90 minutes Stage NREM-1: Stage NREM-2: Stage NREM-3: Small, irregular brain waves; light sleep Sleep spindles; minor noises won’t disturb you Delta waves begin; breathing and pulse slow down; deep sleep REM Sleep- Characterized by: Rapid-eye movements Increased heart rate, blood pressure Breathing faster and irregular
Limp muscles Increased dreaming Why We Sleep. Sleep is necessary for: Bodily restoration Normal mental functioning The Mental Consequences of Sleeplessness. Decreases Ability of new brain cells to develop or mature normally Increases Level of stress hormone cortisol Sleep Apnea: Narcolepsy: REM Behavior Disorder: Breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke and gasp and momentarily Sudden and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or lapses into REM sleep Muscle paralysis that normally occurs during REM sleep is absent/incomplete; sleeper can act out his or her dreams Mental Benefits of Sleep.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 19 pages?
- Fall '15
- Davina Brown