21 fractured gaze A refusal to satisfy the colonizers narrative dem and for

21 fractured gaze a refusal to satisfy the colonizers

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21 fractured gaze [...] A refusal to satisfy the colonizer’s narrative dem and for such recognition is always an effective act of political as well as psychic resistance (Ibid., 98). Kung ang konsepto ng postkolonyalismo ni Said ay mula kina Foucault at Gramsci at ang kay Bhabha naman ay hango mula kina Freud at Lacan, feminista naman ang perspektibang pinagmulan ng mga sinulat ni Gayatri C. Spivak tungkol sa postkolonyalismo, bagamat hindi maikakaila na malaki rin ang impluwensiya sa kanya ng mga Marxistang teorya at ni Jacques Derrida. Sa katunayan, maari nga siyang tawaging isa ng “feminist Marxist deconstructivist.” Sa kanyang maimpluwensyang sanaysay na Can the Subaltern Speak (1988), binihisan ni Spivak ng bagong kahulugan ang tinawag ni Gramsci na “subaltern” o iyong mga naisantabi ng gahum sa pagtalakay ni Spivak sa pagkabihag ng kababaihan lalo na ng kababaihan sa mga bansang Third World una sa imperyalismo at ikalawa sa patriarka. Una niya itong nakita sa pagsulat ng kasaysayan ng India kung saan hindi naisama ang kontribusyon ng kababaihan sa larangan ng pakikibaka laban sa Inglatera: The question is not of female participation in insurgency or the ground rules of the sexual division of labor, for both of which there is ‘evidence.’ It is, rather, that both as object of colonialist historiography and as subject of insurgency, the ideological construction of gender keeps the male dominant. If, in the context of colonial production, the subaltern has no history and cannot speak, the subaltern female is even more deeply in the shadow ( “Can the Subaltern Speak,” 83). Batay na rin sa pamagat ng kanyang sanaysay, nais malaman ni Spivak kung ang subaltern ba ay may boses, kung kaya ba niyang magsalita para sa kanyang sarili o kung habambuhay na lamang bang may magsasalitang iba para sa kanya. Ginamit niyang halimbawa ang panahong nasa ilalim pa
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22 ng Inglatera ang India kung saan inakala ng mga Ingles na sila ang may karapatang magsalita para sa mga katutubong ka babaihan ng India: “The key maneuver was to construct an assenting subaltern female w hich justified the imposition of the ‘modernizing’, ‘liberating’ and ‘progressive’ regime of empire” (kay Moore -Gilbert et al. 29). Tinapos ni Spivak ang kanyang sanaysay sa pagsabing sa ilalim ng kasalukuyang patriyarkang gahum, walang paraan ang babae na maikuwento ang kanyang karanasan gamit ang sarili niyang boses: “There is no space from which the sexed subaltern can speak” (“Can the Subaltern Speak , 103). Binatikos din ni Spivak ang ilang mga puting feminista sa Kanluran sa kapalpakan nilang buwagin ang gahum ng patriyarka at sa kanilang pagkahumaling sa Anglosentrikong kaisipan: “‘Woman’ is implicitly understood as being white, heterosexual and middle class, to the same extent that in humanism, ‘Man’ is constructed in practice in similarly narrow a nd ethnocentric terms” (kay Moore -Gilbert et al. 30). Sa katunayan, sa mga sanaysay na “French Feminism in an International Frame” (1981) at
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