It is not good at predicting how a person will act in

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It is not good at predicting how a person will act in a specific situation at a certain moment o One must assess aggregate behaviors averages over time and across many situations Personality Assessment Humanistically oriented models – argues people have clear and well-defined goals that they strive to achieve o Psychodynamically oriented models – argues people lack insight into their feelings and motives Objective tests – most familiar and widely used approach to assessing personality o Administer standard set of items that are answered w/ a limited set of response options Responses are scores in a standardized and predetermined way o “Objective” refers to method used to score a person’s responses NOT responses themselves Objective personality traits can be divided into 2 basic types o (1) Self-report measures – ask people to describe themselves There are 2 key advantages to self-reports (1) You have direct access to your own thoughts, feelings, and motives (2) Simplest, easiest, and most cost-effective approach to assess personality Items asked may consist of single words, short phrases, or complete sentences
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Self-reports have good validity – how well something measures what it is supposed to measure There are many limitations to self-reports (1) You might be motivated to present yourself in a favorable and socially desirable way (2) Self-enhancement bias motivated to focus on more positive attributes o People tend to ignore or downplay less desirable characteristics (3) Reference group effect – we base our self-perceptions on how we compare to others o (2) Informant ratings – ask someone who knows a person well to describe their personality
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