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A) Both the Union and the Confederacy mobilized their economies and societies to wage the war even while facing considerable home front opposition. >Lincoln sends provisions to Fort Sumter, not reinforcements Confederacy attacks Fort Sumter in April 1861 & Civil War begins >Unites North against South to preserve Union (Lincoln calls for volunteers to fight Indian nations took sides: “5 Civilized Tribes” w/ South & Plains Indians w/ North) >Lincoln’s goal: Keep Border States (Slave states remaining: Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, & Maryland) in Union oWould have given South more white men to fight oWould nearly double manufacturing capacity of South oStrategic geographic location Steps Lincoln took to ensure Border States stayed Proved that civil liberties are reduced during times of national crisis/Presidential power increased during war: Maryland Martial law: rule by the military to seize railroad into state Missouri Guerilla Warfare Suspension of the writ of habeas corpus People arrested without being informed of the charges against them & held without trial Monitored elections so the vote turned out his way Other uses of executive power Ordered a blockade & Increased Federal Army size both w/out Congress approval
>South rally around Confederacy (4 more states join) Advantages Disadvantages North - Industrial Resources Majority of manufacturing capacity - Transportation Railroads advantage - Powerful Navy & established govt. - Population Advantage (22 mil to 9 mil) - Emancipation - Lack of leadership Many top military leaders joined South - Lack of purpose Southern states felt they were struggling for their independence South - Fighting defensive war - Sense of purpose (Southern honor) - Veteran military officials - Cotton Diplomacy (Hoped for recognition & financial assistance) - Had no Navy - No govt. structure Due to emphasis on states’ rights- Poorly equipped and no railroad system Weak economy No manufacturing >North Mobilizing for War Conscription Act(March 1863): All men 20-45 had to register for draft oUnfair to poor: “$300 Men” substitutesoNY City Draft Riots(July 1863): Mob of Irish Americans attacked wealthy & African AmericansB) Lincoln and most Union supporters began the Civil War to preserve the Union, but Lincoln’s decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamationreframed the purpose of the war Helped prevent the Confederacy from gaining full diplomatic support from European powers. Many African Americans fled Southern plantations and enlisted in the Union Army, helping to undermine the Confederacy. >2 Reasons to free slaves: oMilitary: Liberating slaves undermines economic foundation of South oIdeological: Morally right thing to do & pressured by Radical Republicans to make war about slavery (Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens, Benjamin Wade) >Confiscation Act (Aug 1861) Slaves Used for “insurrectionary purposes” declared freeoIncentiveto escape to Union camps >2ndConfiscation Act(July 1862) Freed all slaves enslaved by anyone engaged in rebellion against U.S.