Some psychologist believing that catharsis is

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Some psychologist believing that catharsis is therapeutic Advise parents to encourage children’s release of emotional tension through aggressive play o Viewing or participating in violence fails to produce catharsis (Geen & Quanty, 1977) Invited angered participants to hit a punching bag (Bushman, 2002) While either ruminating about the person who angered them or thinking about becoming physically fit A third group did not hit the punching bag When given a chance to administer loud blasts of noise to the person who angered them People in the punching bag plus rumination condition felt angrier more aggressive Doing nothing at all more effectively reduced aggression than did blowing off steam by hitting the bag o In some real-life experiments aggressing has led to heightened aggression
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Interviewed 100 engineers and technicians (Ebbesen & others, 1975) Shortly after they were angered by layoff notice Some were asked questions that gave them an opportunity to express hostility against their employer or supervisor Answered a questionnaire assessing attitudes toward the company and the supervisors Expressing hostility bred more hostility o Retaliation in the short run may reduce tension and even provide pleasure (Ramirez & others, 2005) In the long run it fuels more negative feelings When people who have been provoked hit a punching bag Even when they believe it will be cathartic The effect is opposite Leading them to exhibit more cruelty (Bushman & others, 1999) o Toxic effect of rumination (Bushman & others, 2005) After being provoked by an obnoxious experimenter with insults half were given a distraction and half were induced to ruminate Mildly insulted by a supposed fellow participant To whom they responded by prescribing a hot sauce does this person would have to consume The distracted participants who their anger now abated prescribed only a mild dose The still-seething ruminators displaced their aggressive urge and prescribed twice as much o There are nonaggressive ways to express our feelings and to inform others how their behavior affects us Reframe accusatory “you” messages as “I” messages Communicate their feelings in a way that better enables the other person to make a positive response (Kubany & others, 1995) Can be assertive without being aggressive - Reduce stressors o e.g. frustration, discomfort and provocation - Teach and model nonviolent responses to frustrations and social problems - Emphasize cooperation over competitiveness - Change cost-reward payoffs associated with aggression - Education - A social learning approach o Aversive experiences such as frustrated expectations and personal attacks predispose hostile aggression
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Wise to refrain from planting false, unreachable expectations in people’s minds Anticipated rewards and costs influence instrumental aggression Should reward cooperative, nonaggressive behavior o Children become less aggressive (Hamblin & others, 1969) When caregivers ignore their aggressive behavior Reinforce their nonaggressive behavior
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  • Fall '16
  • Relational aggression, Bushman,  Berkowitz

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