1 mol c 3 h 8 o 3 x 12 8 x 1 16 60 g c 3 h 8 o 1 mol

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1 mol C 3 H 8 O = (3 x 12) + (8 x 1) + 16 = 60 g C 3 H 8 O 1 mol H = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms H 5.82 x 10 24 atoms H 1 mol C 3 H 8 O molecules = 8 mol H atoms 72.5 g C 3 H 8 O 1 mol C 3 H 8 O 60 g C 3 H 8 O x 8 mol H atoms 1 mol C 3 H 8 O x 6.022 x 10 23 H atoms 1 mol H atoms x =
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14 Formula mass is the sum of the atomic masses (in amu) in a formula unit of an ionic compound. 1Na 22.99 amu 1Cl + 35.45 amu NaCl 58.44 amu For any ionic compound formula mass (amu) = molar mass (grams) 1 formula unit NaCl = 58.44 amu 1 mole NaCl = 58.44 g NaCl Na Cl
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15 What is the formula mass of Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ? 1 formula unit of Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 3 Ca 3 x 40.08 2 P 2 x 30.97 8 O + 8 x 16.00 310.18 amu
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Atomic Mass Atomic and molecular masses can be measured with great accuracy with a mass spectrometer.
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17 Heavy Heavy Light Light Mass Spectrometer Mass Spectrum of Ne
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18 Percent composition of an element in a compound = n x molar mass of element molar mass of compound x 100% n is the number of moles of the element in 1 mole of the compound C 2 H 6 O %C = 2 x (12.01 g) 46.07 g x 100% = 52.14% %H = 6 x (1.008 g) 46.07 g x 100% = 13.13% %O = 1 x (16.00 g) 46.07 g x 100% = 34.73% 52.14% + 13.13% + 34.73% = 100.0%
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19 Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas Determine the empirical formula of a compound that has the following percent composition by mass: K 24.75, Mn 34.77, O 40.51 percent. n K = 24.75 g K x = 0.6330 mol K 1 mol K 39.10 g K n Mn = 34.77 g Mn x = 0.6329 mol Mn 1 mol Mn 54.94 g Mn n O = 40.51 g O x = 2.532 mol O 1 mol O 16.00 g O
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20 Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas K : ~ ~ 1.0 0.6330 0.6329 Mn : 0.6329 0.6329 = 1.0 O : ~ ~ 4.0 2.532 0.6329 n K = 0.6330, n Mn = 0.6329, n O = 2.532 KMnO 4
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21 g CO 2 mol CO 2 mol C g C g H 2 O mol H 2 O mol H g H g of O = g of sample – (g of C + g of H) Combust 11.5 g ethanol Collect 22.0 g CO 2 and 13.5 g H 2 O 6.0 g C = 0.5 mol C 1.5 g H = 1.5 mol H 4.0 g O = 0.25 mol O Empirical formula C 0.5 H 1.5 O 0.25 Divide by smallest subscript (0.25) Empirical formula C 2 H 6 O
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22 3 ways of representing the reaction of H 2 with O 2 to form H 2 O A process in which one or more substances is changed into one or more new substances is a chemical reaction A chemical equation uses chemical symbols to show what happens during a chemical reaction reactants products
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23 How to “Read” Chemical Equations 2 Mg + O 2 2 MgO 2 atoms Mg + 1 molecule O 2 makes 2 formula units MgO 2 moles Mg + 1 mole O 2 makes 2 moles MgO 48.6 grams Mg + 32.0 grams O 2 makes 80.6 g MgO NOT 2 grams Mg + 1 gram O 2 makes 2 g MgO
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