mistaken goals and faulty assumptions associated with feelings of inferiority. These feelings might result from any negative effects of birth order, negative family environment or lack of social interaction and correction of the faulty lifestyle, goals, and assumptions. Ultimately, the counsellor will help the client foster social interest and start contributing to society, overcome feelings of inferiority and acquire a sense of equality with others, modify clientsÊ views and goals, and change clientsÊ faulty motivation. The clientsÊ lifestyles encourage them to be brave enough so that they are able to explore, identify or confront any fears, perceptions or issues that have been burdening them. In a condition full of positive regard and empathy, clients become increasingly willing to change and grow. As they become more fully functioning, they will have greater self acceptance. In conclusion, clients are ultimately responsible for their own lives. The role of the counsellor is to diagnose, teach, and model the desired behaviours. The main task of the counsellor is to assess his clientsÊ level of functioning by gathering information on their family constellation, including Copyright © Open University Malaysia (OUM)
TOPIC 2 COUNSELLING THEORIES I 37 birth order, their parents, siblings and others living at home. ClientsÊ early life experiences are also explored. The counsellor then interprets his clientsÊ situations, putting assumptions on the problem areas that need to be worked out. 2.4.3 Counselling Techniques Adlerian counselling follows FOUR phases of therapy: (a) Establishing a Relationship The counsellor establishes an equal partnership with the client in terms of equal respect, rights and responsibilities. The counsellor accepts the client without any conditions and encourages the person to identify his or her strengths and abilities. Focus is on the fact that the client can make a change if he or she wishes to. The client must feel safe, especially if he or she is to reveal his or her inner thoughts. The counsellor should be serious with the client and not „play games‰. (b) Gathering Information The counsellor gathers information about the client by observing the way he or she enters the room, sits, speaks and behaves during the counselling sessions. The counsellor will analyse the clientÊs lifestyle by examining his/her birth order and family environment, as well as early memories especially during the first few years of life. Early recollections are used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the clientÊs present attitudes and current lifestyle. The counsellor asks directly why the client has come and much can be learned by what he or she tells and does not tell. The counsellor will ask about the clientÊs place of work, family, friends and relationship with siblings. For example, is the client the eldest who was often bullied by his younger brother?
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