SOC 483 Test 3 Outlines.docx

Accounting the process by which people offer accounts

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Accounting – The process by which people offer accounts in order to make sense of their world. Accounting Practices -- The interaction between an actor and his/her audience, wherein the actor offers an account and the audience either accepts or rejects it. Breaching experiments – Field experiments in which the investigator deliberately violates situational rules in order to uncover how people construct their social reality Accomplishing gender - The general point here is that we are not simply born men or women; we all also learn and routinely use the commonplace practices that allow us to pass as men or women. Only in learning these practices do we come to be, sociologically speaking, men or women. (an achieved status) Outline 7 - for Chapter 8 – Feminist Theories
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Gender – “Socially constructed” – Sociology of gender – Four categories of feminist theory – 1. Gender difference – a. cultural feminism – Focuses on (a) the differences in life experience of women compared to men and (b) the positive aspects of womanhood. a. cooperation; lower levels of aggressive behavior and greater capacity for peaceful coexistence b. distinctive standards of ethical judgment c. caring attention as a mode of consciousness d. capacity for openness to emotional experience e. fantasies of sexuality and intimacy b. biological – – (Alice Rossi: Men and women have hormonally-determined & different patterns of development that yield sex-specific differences in (e.g.) play patterns, nurturing inclinations, math anxiety) c. institutional – gender differences stem from differences in the roles men and women learn (through socialization) to play within various social institutions, e.g. the family d. interactional – (Candace West, Don Zimmerman): cultural typification of gender is created and ongoingly reaffirmed through social interaction; people are described as “doing” gender e. existential/phenomenological – (Simone de Beauvoir) – asserts the social world and our culture were created by men and male consciousness, while women were excluded from the creation process…this marginalized women and their experience of everyday life. Women may even be objectified as “the Other” and assigned traits that are opposite of those which are said (by men) to characterize men. 2. Gender inequality – These theories note that women’s location in most situation is not only different, but also less privileged than (i.e. unequal to) that of men.
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a. liberal feminism – feminist theory of inequality arguing: 1. Women can claim equality with men based on their capacity for “reasoned moral agency” 2. Gender inequality results from patriarchal and sexist patterning of the division of labor 3. Gender equality can be achieved by re-patterning key institutions – law, work, family, education and the media – thereby reconstituting the division of labor b. Definition: Sexism – Per liberal feminists, this is defined as a system of discriminatory attitudes and practices; the underlying
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