15 b assess how organisations leaders can address the

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(15) (b) Assess how organisations’ leaders can address the impact of cultural differences between their organisations, using relevant examples to support your answer. (15) (30) 2
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SL Examination Guide June 2015 Page 5 SECTION B (Answer two from three questions) Management is, above all, a practice where art, science, and craft meet ’. Henry Mintzberg Requirement for question 3 Many theories exist to help managers and leaders to be effective. Identify examples of appropriate and inappropriate leadership from across the public services and discuss the reasons for your choice, referencing appropriate management theories to illustrate your answer. (20) There are lots of people shaping decisions, and so if we want to predict correctly, we have to pay attention to everybody who is trying to shape the outcome, not just the people at the pinnacle of the decision-making pyramid. ’ Bruce Bueno de Mesquita In recent years, leaders in the public services have attempted to involve staff at all levels of their organisation, and other stakeholders from outside it, in decision making, to enable them to target their services better and increase participation and commitment. Requirement for question 4 Using relevant examples from the public services: (a) Assess the benefits of leaders involving others (from within and outside the organisation) in shaping decisions. (10) (b) Discuss how this can best be done and the difficulties that might be encountered. (10) (20) 3 4 5 Measuring and managing performance in the public services is of great interest to politicians, the media and to public service organisations themselves. While it can help to improve performance, it can be an expensive waste of time and money and can even cause damage if done poorly. It is crucial, therefore, that performance measurement and management are done properly so that the organisation delivers effective services and ensures sustainability. Requirement for question 5 (a) With reference to relevant examples from public service organisations, assess how leaders can create a culture of performance in their organisations. (10) (b) Discuss the challenges that leaders might face in introducing performance management and assess how these might be overcome. (10) (20)
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SL Examination Guide June 2015 Page 6 Marking Scheme for question 1 (a) 1 mark per valid point and 1 mark for relevant example. Candidates must use a range of PSOs to gain maximum marks for part (a) of this question: if only one example is used, marks for section (a), will be capped at 12 The following is for illustrative purposes of how a candidate may answer. 1 mark for identifying the example, 1 mark for each benefit/opportunity, clearly explained An example of collaboration might be a local authority working with a charity to provide services to elderly people – for example, proving hot food on a daily basis. (1) This collaboration gives the local authority the opportunity to allocate staff to other work, leaving the time-consuming out-of-office task to others. (1) The daily contact between the charity staff
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