prepare young people for careers (Rauner, 1999). The status passage of youth from school-to-work has changed structurally under late modernism, and young people are forced to adapt to changing demands of their environment especially when planning for entry into the labor market. Since the transition to a job is seen as a major success in life, youth who manage this step successfully are more optimistic about their future; still others are disillusioned and pushed to the margins of society. While some young people have developed successful strategies to cope with these requirements, those undereducated and otherwise disadvantaged in society often face serious problems when trying to prepare for careers. Longer transitions lead to a greater vulnerability and to risky behaviors.
42 77 Universe It seems we live in a bizarre Universe. One of the greatest mysteries in the whole of science is the prospect that 75% of the Universe is made up from a mysterious substance known as ‘Dark Energy’, which causes an acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Since a further 21% of the Universe is made up from invisible ‘Cold Dark Mater’ that can only be detected through its gravitational effects, the ordinary atomic matter making up the rest is apparently only 4% of the total cosmic budget. These discoveries require a sh ift in our perception as great as that made after Copernicus’s revelation that the Earth moves around the Sun. This lecture will start by reviewing the checkered history of Dark Energy, not only since Einstein's proposal for a similar entity in 1917, but by tracing the concept back to Newton's ideas. This lecture will summarize the current evidence for Dark Energy and future surveys in which UCL is heavily involved: the "Dark Energy Survey", the Hubble Space Telescope and the proposed Euclid space mission. 78 Global warming You may well ask why science did not warn us of global warming sooner; I think that there are several reasons. We were from the 1970s until the end of the century distracted by the important global problem of stratospheric ozone deple tion, which we knew was manageable. We threw all our efforts into it and succeeded but had little time to spend on climate change. Climate science was also neglected because twentieth‐century science failed to recognize the true nature of Earth as a responsive self‐regulating entity. Biologists were so carried away by Darwin’s great vision that they failed to see that living things were tightly coupled to their material environment and that evolution concerns the whole Earth system with living organisms an integral part of it. Earth is not the Goldilocks planet of the solar system sitting at the right place for life. It was in this favourable state some two billion years ago but now our planet has to work hard, against ever increasing heat from the Sun, to keep itself habitable. We have chosen the worst of times to add to its diﬃculties.
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