Community Acquired Pneumonia CAP Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus

Community acquired pneumonia cap streptococcus

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Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus Viral pneumonia Mycoplasma pneumonia (“walking pneumonia”) Chlamydia pneumoniae Anaerobic pneumonia Nosocomial bacterial pneumonias Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, cytomegalic inclusion virus (CMV) CAP: Diagnostic Tests Chest x-ray Bacterial vs. viral and to rule out pleural effusion Identify cavities or pulmonary infiltrates Leukocyte count Bacterial vs. viral Sputum Gram stain Renal Problems Dysuria Subjective experience of pain or a burning sensation on urination Frequency, urgency, hesitation Can be secondary to several medical conditions or certain medications Most commonly associated with lower urinary system infections Dysuria: Differential Diagnosis Most often associated with a bladder problem and rarely with renal disease Inflammatory lesions of the prostate, bladder, and urethra Other conditions associated with dysuria Bladder tumors Chronic renal failure Nephrolithiasis Disease of upper urinary system Outside the renal system
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STIs Vaginitis and prostatitis Women should be questioned about vaginal discharge or irritation Symptoms may lead to other diagnoses Urethral strictures Prolapsed uterus Pelvic peritonitis Cancer of the cervix or prostate Dysuria: Testing Urinalysis is the easiest, most noninvasive, and most economical way to identify UTIs and other renal problems. Once the associated condition is identified, appropriate treatment can begin. Lower Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Occurs when the normal sterile condition of the urinary tract is invaded by pathogenic bacteria Urethra: urethritis Bladder: cystitis Bladder wall: interstitial cystitis (IC) Prostate gland: prostatitis Acute infections Characterized by the onset of UTI in a previously symptom-free individual Chronic infections Caused by obstructions, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, presence of multiple strains of bacteria Complicated UTI Accompanied by factors that complicate the infection Lower UTI: Epidemiology and Causes More prevalent in sexually active adults, very young children, and frail older adults Other predisposing conditions Suppressed immune system Pregnancy Urinary obstruction Catheter dependency Neurogenic bladder Diabetes mellitus Lower UTI: Pathophysiology Usually occurs as a result of contamination from the patient’s own gastrointestinal tract Fecal contamination secondary to poor perineal hygiene, unprotected sexual intercourse, and/or anatomically shortened urethra in women Spermicide adversely alters vaginal microenvironment Immunosuppressed and catheter dependent Elevated pH of the urine creates a medium in which bacteria can grow and proliferate
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