Single incisive foramen foramen lacerum in base of

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single incisive foramen; foramen lacerum in base of skull; further retardation of onset of ossification; greatest degree of cerebral asymmetries (frontal/occipital lobes, and Sylvian sulcus); highest levels of estriol during pregnancy and menstrual cycle (4-5 times greater than African apes); relative to female body size, longest gestation lengths; farthest separated mammary glands; grow the longest hair of any primate; lack keratinized ischial callosities Miocene forms: Proconsul : at least 2 species; mid-Miocene E. Africa; previously thought to be related to LBHs, or even the African apes, specifically; probably sister taxon to LBHs Kenyapithecus : in 1960s, Simons sunk into genus, Ramapithecus ; now recognized as distinct; seems to be a LBH, but specific relationships unclear; mid-Miocene E. Africa. Ramapithecus : mid-Miocene, Siwaliks, Indo-Pakistan; genus proposed in 1930s by Lewis as possible hominid ancestor; this idea promoted in 1960-80s by Simons and Pilbeam; sunk into prior genus Sivapithecus in 1980 by Andrews and Tekkaya. Sivapithecus : mid (Indo-Pakistan)-late (Turkey) Miocene; genus proposed in early 20th c by
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