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Unit three ethical theories contractarian utilitarian

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Unit Three – Ethical Theories: Contractarian, Utilitarian,and KantianGlossary TermsAct UtilitarianismCategorical ImperativeContractarianismDeontologyHedonisticUtilitarianismPluralist DeontologyPluralist UtilitarianismPreference UtilitarianismPrima Facie DutiesRespect for PersonsRule UtilitarianismState of NaturePersons of NoteThomas HobbesImmanuel KantJohn Stuart MillW.D. RossPeter SingerContractarianism (Hobbes)ContractarianismThomas Hobbes (1588-1679) is the classic exponent of contract theoryoHobbes was an English political theorist, author of Leviathan (1651).oHobbes was profoundly influenced by the religious and civil wars of the periodoHis ethical and political theory is all about avoiding the “war of all against all” ofa hypothetical state of nature, and persuading us to accept a minimal morality thatis necessary for civil peaceDownloaded by Hashim Syed ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|4879711
oHobbes was tough-minded and cynical about human natureHe built his theory on the “low but solid ground” of prudential self-interestand fear of deathFrom Maslow’s perspective, Hobbesian theory operates almostentirely at the level of our basic physiological and safety needs.Hobbes’ LeviathanHuman beings are Self-interested (or egoistic) but RationaloIn aState of Naturelacking a common power or government, everything wouldbe permitted, there would be no right or wrong, no natural conscience.oQuality of Vulnerability. We are all equal, not because of any high-flown ideals,but because of the fact that “the weakest has strength enough to kill the strongest”(Hobbes, 1651, ch.1:13)Everyone must sleep sometimes. No prudent person canafford not to take the feelings of others into accountoWe have a Mutual Interest in avoiding a State of Nature because it would be a warof all against all in which the “life of man is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, andshort. ““The passions that incline men to peace” are fear of death and desire forprosperous and comfortable living (Hobbes, 1651)oMorality is derived from the Social Contract and then enforced by a sovereignpower (“for promises without the sword are but empty words”).It is a good deal for everyone to escape the violent anarchy of the state ofnature, so Hobbes thinks it is Rational and Prudent for all self-interestedpeople to obey itoThe power to se force and arbitrate disputes is given by the social contract to aSovereign. Hobbes envisioned the Sovereign as a absolute monarch, as that wasthe prevailing political regime of the day. He thought it would be more stable, lesslikely to degenerate into civil war, than a democratic alternativeNatural Law– Hobbes spoke of the following as “Natural laws”. However they aremerely “general rules of reason” which enable us to scape the State of Nature. The firstthree suggested by Hobbes are:oSeek Peace, as far as possible, and defend oneself when necessaryoBe content with as much liberty against others as we would allow them against us

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Term
Spring
Professor
CraigBeam
Tags
Hashim Syed

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