Despite the tradition of encouraging intermarriage and no laws that enforced

Despite the tradition of encouraging intermarriage

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Despite the tradition of encouraging intermarriage and no laws that enforced segregation, racial democracy in Brazil was a myth There was widespread discrimination and prejudice against blacks and browns Goals: teach black and brown individuals to question the version of history they had been taught and the words they use to think about themselves Outcome Implementation of affirmative action programs that address the race and class-based inequalities and discrimination in education Lobbied for a constitutional amendment outlawing racial discrimination Tertiary education implemented a quota system in which a predetermined share of each class admitted are black, poor, or from public Tax breaks to employees who hire blacks Mandates that African and Brazilian black history be taught in elementary and middle schools When Does Race Matter Stigma - physical trait or other attribute that is deeply discrediting Discredited because it focuses everyone’s attention on one “tainted” status and breaks the claims of other attributes the stigmatized might possess
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Mixed Contacts - interactions between stigmatized people and so- called normals normal and stigmatized status depends on the social context Happens when stigmatized and normals find themselves in the same social setting Patterns of mixed contacts 1. The anticipation of contact can cause avoidance between normals and stigmatized → to escape anticipated discomfort, rejection, disapproval, and suspicion 2. Normals and stigmatized people enter interaction unsure how the other views them or will act toward them Uncertain because some people they meet may view them negatively or treat them unfairly 3. Normals often define accomplishments by the stigmatized— even minor achievements—“as signs of remarkable and noteworthy capacities” 4. Normals tend to attribute any major or minor failing on the part of the stigmatized to the stigma 5. Stigmatized are likely to experience invasion of privacy, especially when normals stare Responses to Stigmatization 1. Attempt to “correct” the source of stigma - eg. changing the visible markers believed to represent barriers to success and belonging 2. Devoting a great deal of time and effort to disproving stereotypes or to appear as if they are in full control of everything around them 3. Use their subordinate status for secondary gains, including personal profit, or as “an excuse for ill success that has come [their] way for other reasons” 4. View it as a blessing in disguise, especially for its ability to build character or for what it teaches about life and humanity 5. Condemn all the normals and view them negatively - Elites that come out of that country considers themselves more superior - Chinese take on positions of the british → show that they are the new elites - The emergence of a state - Eg. delhi - because is the capital → people have to learn delhi language etc.. - Insistence to categories race → prevents the creation of a unified identity
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