See for example seidler 1994 4 i do not mean to argue

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less other theorists have described the mechanics of manly proof. (See, for example, Seidler, 1994.) 4. I do not mean to argue that women do not have anxieties about whether they are feminine enough. Ask any woman how she feels about being called aggres- sive; it sends a chill into her heart because her femininity is suspect. (I believe that the reason for the enormous recent popularity of sexy lingerie among women is that it enables women to remember they are still feminine under- neath their corporate business suit—a suit that apes masculine styles.) But I think the stakes are not as great for women and that women have greater latitude in de fi ning their identities around these questions than men do. Such are the ironies of sexism: The powerful have a narrower range of options than the powerless, because the powerless can also imitate the powerful and get away with it. It may even enhance status, if done with charm and grace—that is, is not threatening. For the powerful, any hint of behaving like the powerless is a fall from grace. 5. Some of Freud’s followers, such as Anna Freud and Alfred Adler, did follow up on these suggestions. (See especially, Adler, 1980.) I am grateful to Terry Kupers for his help in thinking through Adler’s ideas. 6. The image is from Warren Farrell, who spoke at a workshop I attended at the First International Men’s Conference, Austin, Texas, October 1991. 7. For a critique of the mythopoetic retreats, see Kimmel and Kaufman, Ch. 14, Brod, Harry and Michael Kaufman (eds.) Theorizing Masculinities , Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994. References Adler, A. (1980). Cooperation between the sexes: Writings on women, love and marriage, sexuality and its disorders (H. Ansbacher & R. Ansbacher, Eds. & Trans.). New York: Jason Aronson. Arendt, H. (1970). On revolution . New York: Viking. Bly, R. (1990). Iron John: A book about men . Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Connell, R. W. (1987). Gender and power . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. masculinity as homophobia 197
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Farrell, W. (1986). Why men are the way they are . New York: McGraw-Hill. Farrell, W. (1993). The myth of male power: Why men are the disposable sex . New York: Simon & Schuster. Freud, S. (1933/1966). New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis (L. Strachey, Ed.). New York: Norton. Gaylin, W. (1992). The male ego . New York: Viking. Go ff man, E. (1963). Stigma . Englewood Cli ff s, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Gorer, G. (1964). The American people: A study in national character . New York: Norton. Kaufman, M. (1993). Cracking the armour: Power and pain in the lives of men . Toronto: Viking Canada. Keen, S. (1991). Fire in the belly . New York: Bantam. Kimmel, M. S. (in press). Manhood: The American Quest [ which became Manhood in America: A Cultural History, New York: Free Press, 1996 ]. Leverenz, D. (1986). Manhood, humiliation and public life: Some stories. Southwest Review, 71 , Fall. Leverenz, D. (1991). The last real man in America: From Natty Bumppo to Batman. American Literary Review, 3 . Marx, K., & F. Engels. (1848/1964). The communist manifesto. In R. Tucker (Ed.), The Marx-Engels reader . New York: Norton.
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