DSST Fundamentals of counseling study sheet

Humanistic psychotherapies holism is the idea that

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humanistic psychotherapies Holism is the idea that all the properties of a given system (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic , etc.) cannot be determined or explained by its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. Humanistic psychology includes several approaches to counseling and therapy. Among the earliest approaches we find the developmental theory of Abraham Maslow, emphazising a hierarchy of needs and motivations; the existential psychology of Rollo May acknowledging human choice and the tragic aspects of human existence; and the person-centered or client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers, which is centered on the clients' capacity for self-direction and understanding of his/her own development. Other approaches to humanistic counseling and therapy include Gestalt therapy , humanistic psychotherapy , depth therapy , holistic health , encounter groups , sensitivity training , marital and family therapies , body work , and the existential psychotherapy of Medard Boss . Existential-integrative psychotherapy , developed by Kirk Schneider (2008), is a relatively new development within humanistic and existential therapy. Self-help is also included in humanistic psychology: Sheila Ernst and Lucy Goodison have described using some of the main humanistic approaches in self-help groups . Co-counselling , which is a purely self-help approach, is regarded as coming within humanistic psychology (see John Rowan's Guide to Humanistic Psychology ). Humanistic theory has had a strong influence on other forms of popular therapy, including Harvey Jackins ' Re-evaluation Counseling and the work of Carl Rogers . Humanistic psychology tends to look beyond the medical model of psychology in
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order to open up a nonpathologizing view of the person. This usually implies that the therapist downplays the pathological aspects of a person's life in favor of the healthy aspects. A key ingredient in this approach is the meeting between therapist and client and the possibilities for dialogue. The aim of much humanistic therapy is to help the client approach a stronger and more healthy sense of self, also called self-actualization . All this is part of Humanistic psychology's motivation to be a science of human experience, focusing on the actual lived experience of persons. Existential psychotherapy is a method of therapy that operates on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individual's confrontation with the givens of existence. These givens, as noted by Yalom , are: the inevitability of death, freedom and its attendant responsibility, existential isolation (referring to phenomenology), and finally meaninglessness. These four givens, also referred to as ultimate concerns, form the body of existential psychotherapy and compose the framework in which a therapist conceptualizes a client's problem in order to develop a method of treatment. The existential psychotherapist is generally not concerned with the client's past; instead, the emphasis is on the choices to be made in the present and future.
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