Communication between neurons occurs at the synapse A Synapse a junction

Communication between neurons occurs at the synapse a

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Communication between neurons occurs at the synapse A.Synapse– a junction between the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron (communication between two neurons occurs here)1.Pre-synaptic vs. post-synaptic neuronB.Firing neurons release neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) that cross the synapse1.Neural impulse(the electrochemical discharge of a neuron)C.Synaptic vesicles(sacs in the axon terminals that store the neurotransmitter) 1.Neural firing drives them to the synapse where they release their neurotransmitters D.The neurotransmitter binds to the receptorsite on the target (post-synaptic) neuronE.Ion channels open – causes change in electrical potential of post-synaptic neuronF.Types of neurotransmitters 1.Acetylcholine– movement, learning, memory a.Disorder associated with malfunctioning - Alzheimer’s disease2.Norepinephrine– sleep, mood, eating habitsa.Disorder associated with malfunctioning - depression3.Serotonin– mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, appetitea.Disorder associated with malfunctioning - depression4.Dopamine– movement, reward, learning, attention a.Disorder associated with malfunctioning - Parkinson’s disease & Schizophrenia5.GABA– primary INHIBITORY neurotransmitter in brain; affects anxiety and movementa.Disorder associated with malfunctioning – severe anxiety, epilepsy6.Endorphin– modulation of pain (“Runner’s high”)G.Nerve– a bundle of axons from many neuronsIV.The central nervous system (CNS)A.Spinal cord– connects brain to PNS; spinal reflexes (simple unlearned response to a stimulus to a stimulus that may require only two neurons, a sensory neuron & a motor neuron)
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Fall 2015Feldman - 5B. Brain1.Hindbraina.Brainstem– handles functions critical to physical survivali.pons– relay station for motor messages b/t cerebellum & motor cortexii.reticular formation– arousal system involved in alertness & attentioniii.medulla– heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, coughingb.Cerebellum– smooth and skilled movement; muscle tone & posture2.Midbraina.Substantia nigra– unconscious motor actions3.Forebraina.Thalamus– relay station b/t cerebral cortex and sensory information (for all senses except smell)b.Hypothalamus– hunger, thirst, body temperature, physiological aspects of emotionc.Limbic systemi.amygdala– emotion (esp. response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli)ii.hippocampus– memory consolidation (forming new memories), navigational abilityd.Cerebrum– largest structure in human braini.Cerebral cortexoGray mattervs. White matteroCerebral hemispheres– lateralization of brain functionoLeft hemisphere – controls right side of bodyLanguage Broca’s area(damage results in Broca’s aphasia– difficulty producing speech; understanding fine)Wernicke’s area(damage results in Wernicke’s aphasia – difficulty understanding speech; production fine but doesn’t make sense)Math & logicDetailsoRight hemisphere –
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  • A. Resting neuron, B. Firing neurons

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