Energy_Storage_Technologies.pdf

Environmental impact there are little to no negative

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Environmental Impact There are little to no negative environmental impacts for flywheels since the materials are benign and are rather compact. Other Resources Additional sources on flywheels include [2,8,13], with a more detailed treatment in [14]. Summary of Device Parameters The following tables summarize the available technoeconomic parameters for flywheel energy storage devices (first low-speed, then high-speed) from a number of studies from 2000-2010. All monetary values have been adjusted to 2010 dollars. If a value is marked with “-” either the quantity was not found in the corresponding report or the way it was presented was inconsistent with the format used here. For example, the EPRI-DOE report gives total cost in $/kW or $/kWh, not a formulation that takes into account both, simultaneously. 14
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Energy Storage Technologies Flywheel Energy Storage Low-speed Flywheels Source: Schoenung EPRI Gonzalez Schoenung Chen 2003 [5] 2003 [2]* 2004 [3] 2008 [6] 2009 [7]* Techno. Params. Roundtrip Efficiency [%] 90 70-80 86 - 90-95 Self-discharge [%Energy per day] - - - - 100 Cycle Lifetime [cycles] - 100k+ - - 20k+ Expected Lifetime [Years] n/a n/a 20 - 15 Specific Energy [Wh/kg] - - - - 10-30 Specific Power [W/kg] - - - - 400-1500 Energy Density [Wh/L] - - - - 20-80 Power Density [W/L] - - - - 1k-2k Costs Power Cost [$/kW] 360 - 350 280 250-350 Energy Cost [$/kWh] 60k - 230-345 380 1k-5k PCS Cost [$/kW] 110-600 180 270-580 - - BOP Cost [$/kW] - 120 92 0 - O&M Fixed Cost [$/kW-y] 6.0 22 - - - High-speed Flywheels Source: Schoenung EPRI Gonzalez Schoenung Chen 2003 [5] 2003 [2]* 2004 [3] 2008 [6] 2009 [7]* Techno. Params. Roundtrip Efficiency [%] 95 70-80 88 - 90-95 Self-discharge [%Energy per day] 1.25 - - - 100 Cycle Lifetime [cycles] - 100k+ - - 20k+ Expected Lifetime [Years] 16+ n/a 20 - 15 Specific Energy [Wh/kg] - - - - 10-30 Specific Power [W/kg] - - - - 400-1500 Energy Density [Wh/L] - - - - 20-80 Power Density [W/L] - - - - 1k-2k Costs Power Cost [$/kW] 360-400 - 400 300 250-350 Energy Cost [$/kWh] 1.2k-150k - 580-29k 1k 1k-5k PCS Cost [$/kW] 110-600 180 270-580 - - BOP Cost [$/kW] 0 120 1.2k 0 - O&M Fixed Cost [$/kW-y] 6.0 22 8.6 - - * Denotes that these values were presented in general for flywheels, not specifically low or high speed, so they are included in both tables. 15
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Energy Storage Technologies Electrochemical Capacitors (aka Supercapacitors) 3.4 Electrochemical Capacitors (aka Supercapacitors) The most confusing part of this technology may be its name, because in different publications it has gone by many names, including: supercapacitor, ultracapacitor, pseudocapacitor, electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), and gold capacitor. These devices are the descendant of the conventional capacitor (electrostatic or electrolytic), but with the capability to hold orders- of-magnitude more energy (although still less than conventional batteries per volume). Traditional capacitors were typically not considered for large-scale energy storage because of how little energy they could store. Electrochemical capacitors are capable of storing larger quantities of energy in devices that are similar in size to traditional capacitors.
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  • One '14
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