Performance the rat is exposed to some sort of

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performance), the rat is exposed to some sort of sensory stimulus (such as a tone) for 2-3 minutes. At the end of the application of stimulus, a brief foot shock is delivered; the rat quickly learns to associate the tone with the impending foot shock. It will thus lever press quickly until it hears the tone, at which point lever pressing drops off considerably. It is hypothesized that the “anxiety” produced by the tone results in a decrease in lever pressing . Rats given benzodiazepines do not show the same degree of stimulus-induced decrement in lever pressing, suggesting they are having an anxiolytic effect.
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24. What are TWO advantages of using intravenous drug administration over oral drug administration in studying the reinforcing properties of drugs? ( 1 mark ) Drug taste not a factor Quicker onset of drug effect. 25. What is drug discrimination? Give an example (such as designing an experiment) illustrating how it can be demonstrated. ( 2 marks ) Animals are trained to make one response after administration of a particular drug and a different response after injection of vehicle or a different drug. The subjective state produced by the effects of the drug thus leads to stimulus control over the behaviour . In a typical experiment the animal receives drug and then if it presses the lever previously associated with the drugged state, it receives a food reward; if it presses the other lever (associated with vehicle) it receives a mild shock (for being wrong!). Animals quickly learn to press the correct lever. Next the experimenter can substitute the drug the animal was trained with for another one, or to test different doses of the training drug . The question to be answered is if the subjective effects of this new drug or dose are similar to that of the original training dose of the drug. 26. . A man weighs 220 pounds (100 kg) and he is 60% water by mass. He drinks six beers very quickly (assume he consumes them instantaneously and also with instantaneous distribution in total body water). Right after drinking he wants to borrow your car. Is this a good idea from a legal perspective? Provide evidence for your decision regarding handing over your car keys. {Note: you can round off numbers to make the math easier since rounding will not affect your conclusions} (1 mark ) Each beer contains about 14 g of alcohol, so 6 beers = 84 g of alcohol. This 84 g of alcohol is dissolved in 60 L of water, which means that his blood alcohol level is considerably greater than 1 g/L (or 0.1 g/100ml). The legal limit for driving in most states including Texas is 0.08 g/100 ml (80 mg%), so he could be charged with DUI while driving your car. Handing over your car keys would not be a good idea!
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27. Some people, including a high percentage of Asians, show marked flushing reactions, tachycardia and nausea after consuming alcohol. Why? (0.5 marks) They have a variant of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, that results in a slow metabolism of acetaldehyde. The buildup of acetaldehyde causes the reaction. 28. Briefly explain why the placenta does not protect the developing embryo or fetus from teratogenic compounds. (0.5 marks) The placenta is designed to act as a sieve, allowing the passage of nutrients and wastes from mother to child. As a result small molecules, especially those smaller than 600 daltons, can pass freely, inluding teratogens and pro- teratogens. 29. FILL IN THE BLANKS. You are an emergency room physician who encounters a patient exhibiting clear signs of psychosis. It is possible that this patient is a _ schizophrenic_ ______, which is quite possible since this condition is seen in 1% of the population. Another possibility is that this patient has overdosed on a drug such as _ cocaine or amphetamines _________ (1 mark)
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