A place where various cultures cross paths since

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a place where various cultures cross paths Since ancient times, people moving between Europe and Asia traders, nomads, migrants, and armies have passed through this region Because the region is an important crossroads, many world powers have tried to control it
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I. HISTORY OF A CULTURAL CROSSROADS B) Empires and Kingdoms By AD 100, the ancient Roman Empire controlled the Balkan Peninsula, Bulgaria, Romania, and parts of Hungary After the Roman Empire split, they were controlled by the Byzantine Empire In the 1300s and 1400s, the Ottoman Empire of Turkey gradually took over the southern part of Eastern Europe Slavic ethnic groups moved into the region from 400s to 600s, forming kingdoms such as Poland in the north and Serbia in the south In the 800s, the Magyar ethnic group conquered what is now Hungary and established a kingdom (the Ottomans would later conquer it) Beginning in the 1400s, Austria became a great power, and drove the Ottomans out of Hungary and took control of it, forming Austria-Hungary In the late 1700s, Austria, Prussia (a German state), and Russia divided up Poland among themselves; Poland ceased to exist
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B. TURMOIL IN THE 20 TH CENTURY A) War After War In the 20 th century, many ethnic groups in Eastern Europe wanted their own nations, which sparked many conflicts By 1908, the Balkan countries of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia had broken free from the Ottoman Empire In 1912, Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia went to war against the Ottomans, who lost most of their remaining European territory In 1913, the Balkan countries fought over who would own this territory this led to a new word balkanization the process of a region breaking up into small, hostile units In 1914, World War I would break out after a Serbian assassinated the ruler of Austria-Hungary After the war, Austria and Hungary would break apart into 2 nations Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia would gain independence The Ottoman Empire ended and was replaced by the nation of Turkey In 1939, Germany seized Poland, starting WWII After the war, the Soviet Union would take control of most of Eastern Europe, with most nations of Eastern Europe becoming satellite nations nations dominated by another country
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II. TURMOIL IN THE 20 TH CENTURY (continued…) B) Recent Changes The Soviet Union would control Eastern Europe for over 4 decades By the late 1980s, the Soviet Union had severe economic problems, and a new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, was making reforms including giving Eastern Europe more freedom In 1989, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania ended Communist control of their government and held free elections; in 1990 Bulgaria and Yugoslavia did the same The old governments taught people only to be loyal to the Communist Party after those governments fell, people returned to their ethnic loyalties This was especially true in Yugoslavia , where in the early 1990s, it was divided into 6 different countries Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia
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  • Northern Europe, Bulgaria,  I. PENINSULAS

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