Performed in open venues markets public squares Lyrics adapted from earlier

Performed in open venues markets public squares

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Performed in open venues -- markets, public squares Lyrics adapted from earlier korean vernacular novels Sin Chae-hyo (1812-1884): compiled six pansori texts Mainly consisted of satire against the yangban, and monks Grievances against inequities 22) Tonghak Founded by Choe Che-u who was executed in 1864 Believed unity of man with God, equality for all men, incorporated chanting practices and shamanistic beliefs Cause was mainly due to tight Chinese rule, government corruption, and weakened morale, heavy taxation of peasants Their ultimate goal was to restore taewongun; destroy min oligarchy and be free of their rule; become an independent empire, and expel the Japanese Tonhak was distinctly politcal, anti-foreign, and conservative; all of which expressed signs of mass nationalism Acted as a basis for modern struggles Manifestos, declarations, and demands for the ending to hereditary social discrimination, expel foreigners, and redistribution of property Appealed to secondary sons and fallen yangban A hodgepodge of neo-confucianism, Christianity, Buddhism, Taoism, and shamanism Korean alternative to Catholicism 23) Treaty of Kanghwa (1876) Demanding apology from Choson after Unyo incident, Japanese General Kuroda wrote this treaty to open Korea to Japanese trade Japan allied Korea so Korea’s status as tributary state of China would end Obviously, treaty was far from equal; it gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea The Korean government was to open 3 ports to Japanese and foreign trade, specifically Busan, Incheon, and Wonsan and was to establish its independence in foreign relations from China (although it still paid its tribute to China) Japan demanded Korea sign a treaty turning control over Korea’s communication to Japan (1905), and later the same year, another treaty put control of Korea’s foreign relations under Japanese control 24) Kabo Reforms (1894-1896) The first collaborative attempt of korea to modernize the government

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