more surface area faster heat loss Big planets cool off slower so more geo

More surface area faster heat loss big planets cool

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and no rings, closer to Sun. more surface area, faster heat loss. Big planets cool off slower, so more geo activity. (M.V never seen far from sun) - mercury(H,He, K, Na, O2) barren airless, crater. Scarps formed when core cooled, planet shrinking -venus (96%CO2{green house effect, hottest}, N2, water vapor) appears in morning or evening, brightest after sun and moon. Water evaporate, solar ultraviolet(UV) radiation broke H2O into H and O, and solar wind strips away H atoms. Earth has ozone(O3) to shield the UV. Exhibit retrograde rotation that is opposite of the rest of the inner planets. - mars (CO2, N2, water vapor, other): very thin atmos. Rusty surface( O bound in oxides in rocks and iron, so reddish surface). Mars’s pressure is too low for liquid water to exist, freeze or vaporize. Too small. Jovian: larger, lower density, mostly rock, metals, hydrogen compounds, cold not solid surface(no geo activity), rings and many moons, farther from Sun. rapid rotation(internal heat= strong winds and storms), think H and He atmos. - Jupiter: (89.8% H2, He, CH4, NH3, water vapor, other): atmos is 1000km thick, gas gaints, liquid H and He interiors moons: made of ice and rock (except lo) - jupiter’s:{lo: most volcanically active in solar system, tidal force}{Europa: ice surface, covered with dust, may have a deep liquid water ocean}{Ganymede: largest in solar system} {callisto:craterd iceball, farthest from Jupiter, ancient surface, no recent geo activity, no substantial tidal heating} - saturn’s:{titan: largest of saturn’s, only moon in solar system have a thick atmos, 90% N} {enceladus: ejected icy particles, may have subsurface liquid water} - neptune’s {trition: geo active, retrograde orbit} saturn’s rings: mostly water ice particles, wide but very thin, disappear when viewed edge-on, other jovian’s rings made or dark, dirty dust particles. Extrasolar planets: observed by radial velocity and transit method Larger amplitude in the radial velocity, larger planet mass. Shorter period, closer to the star Selection effect: big planet smake big wobble, easier to detect. Close planets make fast wobbles, less time to oberserve a full orbital period Hot jupiters: Jupiter size planets less than 0.1 AU Super earth: 2-10 times mass of earth Sun: radiative zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona Photosphere: visible light is emitted, tem=5800k, highly opaque, Chromosphere Corona only visible during total solar eclipse, tem= a million k, V.Stars Larger the parallax, closer the stars - Luminosity: total light energy output per second
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