performed on a yearly basis. Some organizations, however, begin testing high-risk patients in their forties if the male has a first degree relative with prostate cancer (NCI, n.d.). Sensitivity and Reliability Serum PSA is measured on a scale of nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml). A normal result is considered lower than 4.0 ng/ml. The higher the PSA increases the prostate cancer. If a male has a level above the 4.0 ng/ml, the provider will usually repeat the serum PSA. If it continues to be elevated, a prostate biopsy will be ordered (NCI, n.d.). Depending on race, family history, or age a biopsy may be performed if the PSA is between 2.5-3.0 ng/ml (American Cancer Society, 2016). The validity of the PSA has been proven effective in detecting prostate cancer and monitoring the effects of cancer treatment of the prostate (Ahmad, et al., 2017). However, the reliability has isn’t as straightforward as the results vary. It is important that the provider take other things into consideration, such as performing a digital exam. There are also other tests like PSA density, PSA velocity, free-to-complexed PSA ratio, percentage Pro-PSA, etc., which have
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- Summer '15
- Prostate cancer