Page 13Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, Volume 19, Number 2, 2015centered environments take seriously the need to help students become knowledgeable by helping them learn in ways that lead to understanding and subsequent transfer. Knowledge-centered environments intersect with learner-centered environments when instruction begins with a concern for students’ initial preconceptions about the subject matter. Without carefully considering the knowledge that students bring to the learning situation, it is difficult to predict what they will understand about new information that is presented to them. Assessment Centered The third component of the PLE model is that the learning environment must be assessment centered. There are two types of assessment: formative assessment, which is administered and used to improve teaching and learning, and summative assessment, which is used to measure what students have learned at the end of the designated learning period (Bransford et al., 2000). Summative assessments are what most people think of when assessment is mentioned; they can assure accountability and may even help teachers modify their teaching strategies. However, one might argue that formative assessments are more beneficial. Formative assessments allow students to receive feedback in a more informative and timely manner. Furthermore, teachers are better able to adjust their instruction for students who have difficulty understanding the concepts (Bransford et al., 2000). Assessing the achievement of learning goals is critical. Assessments should be “predictive of students’ performance in everyday settings once they leave the classroom” (Bransford et al., 2000, p. 141). Assessments that are designed to measure students’ ability to simply recall memorized information do not necessarily assess knowledge transfer, which is critically important in learning situations. Proper assessments must measure students’ ability totake knowledge that has been acquired in the classroom and, in turn, apply it to a new situation.