Pitt spared no expense in increasing the size of the

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Pitt spared no expense in increasing the size of the army and the navy and finding the best commanders for both. He also broke with the common practices in the British military of rewarding the nobility with high office and accepting bribes from soldiers seeking higher Getty Images At the Battle of the Monongahela, George Washington’s calm demeanor under fire made him a hero in the colonies.
CHAPTER 4 Section 4.4 The French and Indian War ranks. He sent only the best generals, such as James Wolfe and Jeffrey Amherst, to North America to wrest the continent away from the French. More than merely a defense of the American colonists, the war would be Great Britain’s golden opportunity to defeat France in Europe, the Caribbean, and even Asia (Anderson, 2000, pp. 303–306). Pitt’s strategy was remarkably successful. In July 1758, the French fortress of Louis- bourg at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River fell to the British. During the next year, the British took Fort Duquesne, renaming it Fort Pitt (the site of modern-day Pitts- burgh), as well as Fort Niagara and Crown Point. In September 1759, General Wolfe fought a brilliant battle against French General Marquis de Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham just south of Quebec. Wolfe, like Montcalm, died in the battle, but Quebec fell to the British, as did Montreal a year later. The British Navy defeated the Span- ish, who had joined the war on the side of the French, in the Philippines by taking the capital city of Manila, and they captured the important French sugar islands of Guade- loupe and Martinique as well as many French trading posts in India. France Surrenders In the Treaty of Paris that officially ended the Seven Years’ War in 1763 (renamed for the length of time the Europeans had officially been at war), France surrendered Canada to Great Britain. In a supplemental treaty, France also abandoned its claims to all the land between the Appalachians and the Mississippi, including the valuable Ohio Country. To the British, Spain surrendered Flor- ida and the land along the Gulf of Mexico west to New Orleans, though not New Orleans itself. In return, Great Britain gave the Sugar Islands back to France and the Philippines back to Spain (Bor- neman, 2007, pp. 273–280). Though stunned at the departure of their French allies, the Ohio tribes still had no intention of surrendering their country to the colonists. They expected the fur trade to continue at the same forts, now under the control of the British. For their part, the colonists were ecstatic at the depar- ture of the French, believing it opened the door for them to settle the Ohio Country. Although they had suffered many insults from British army officers and even the lowliest redcoats, they were thankful to their mother country for coming to their rescue. They were especially fond of Pitt and the new young King George III, who had assumed the throne during the war on the death of his grandfather, George II. The fact that Great Britain had been fighting for the future of its worldwide empire rather than for the interests of its

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