Get acquainted with technological devices to monitor

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Biochemistry
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Chapter 28 / Exercise 9
Biochemistry
Garrett/Grisham
Expert Verified
Get acquainted with technological devices to monitor and measure the production CO2 during cellular respiration Separate the pigments in a leaf extract using paper chromatography Obtain the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll aBackground Information: The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only converted from one form to another. Because all living organisms have a constant energy requirement, they have mechanisms to gather, store, and use energy. Collectively, these mechanisms are called metabolism. A single, specific reaction that starts with one compound and ends up with another compound is a reaction. A sequence of such reactions is a metabolic pathway. Carbohydrates are temporary energy stores. The process by which energy stored in carbohydrates is released to the cell is respiration. Both autotrophs and heterotrophs undergo respiration. Photoautotrophs, such as plants, utilize the carbohydrates they have produced by photosynthesis to build new cells and maintain cellular machinery. Heterotrophic organisms may obtain materials for respiration in two ways: by digesting plant material or by digesting the tissues of animals that have previously digested plants. For aerobic respiration, the general equation is: C6H12O6+ 6 O26 CO2+ 6 H2O + energy Metabolic raterefers to metabolism energy per unit of time, or the rate at which an organism burns calories to maintain itself. The metabolic rate of an animal is affected by the external temperature, diet, age, time of day and year, level of activity and many other factors. The body temperature of ectotherms(e.g. amphibians, reptiles, and insects) is largely determined by the temperature of their surroundings. Because of this, the metabolic rate of an ectotherm is closely linked to the external temperature. This is largely due to the fact that aerobic respiration, particularly the reactions of glycolysis heat (photons) Cellular Respiration C6H12O6+ O2CO2+ H2OPhotosynthesis
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Biochemistry
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Chapter 28 / Exercise 9
Biochemistry
Garrett/Grisham
Expert Verified
9-4and the Krebs cycle, are catalyzed by enzymes that are extremely sensitive to small changes in temperature. In fact, for ectotherms the relationship between metabolic rate and external temperature can be almost linear within a wide range of temperatures. Most ectotherms control their body temperatures through behavioral adaptations. They actively select the most appropriate environment. High temperatures can be rapidly fatal for these organisms because critical enzymes of the respiratory pathway denature and cease to function. Low temperatures might reduce the metabolic rate so much that the animal’s ability to find food, capture prey, or escape predators would be severely compromised. For these reasons, ectotherms tend to select temperatures close to 40oC, where cellular respiration tends to be more efficient.

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