IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

In spite of the advantages of electric motors the

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handling of the energy storage. In spite of the advantages of electric motors, the combination of an electric drive-train with an internal combustion engine is reasonable. That is because electricity storage for driving ranges of up to 500 km, which are achieved by conventional drive-trains (and petrol tanks), are not feasible today. Hybrid classes and vehicle batteries Generally the different hybrid vehicles are classified by their integrated functions, as shown in Figure 3-16. The power demand on the battery increases with additional integrated functions. The more functions are integrated in the vehicle, the higher the potential of fuel savings and therefore the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. While vehicles up to the full hybrid level have already entered the market, plug-in hybrids and pure electric vehicles are not yet established in larger quantities. Figure 3-15 – Future home energy network in a smart house (IEC White Paper 2010) i i i i l i i l i i i i i i AC 50/60 Hz Power station Transformer AC 100 - 200 V Air conditioner Refrigerator Washing machine Heat p u m p Microwave o v e n P h o t o v o t a i c S e c o n d a r y C e ll L V D C 24~48 V H y b r i d I n d u c t i o n heater TV DVD/BD Audio set PC Printer Game m a c h i n e Fax C o n t r o l DC PLC LED lighting Sensor V e nti l a t i o n Hydrogen FC Wireless charger Electric toothbrush Electric sh a v e r B a th Heat p u m p K i t c h e n Waste heated water Wash b a s i n
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56 S E C T I O N 3 Markets for EES Regarding energy storage for vehicles, today lead acid batteries are commonly used in micro- hybrids. In combination with a double-layer capacitor there might also be options for their use in mild or full hybrids, but since technically better solutions are available and economically feasible they will not play any role in the future. NiMH batteries are mainly used in hybrid vehicles because their system is well-engineered and, compared to Li-ion batteries, they are actually more favourable especially due to safety issues. Good cycle stability in low states of charge which often appear in hybrid cars is characteristic for these batteries. All Toyota hybrid vehicles use a NiMH battery with 1.3 kWh and 40 kW. Toyota has sold in total about 3 million hybrid vehicles with this battery; this means the total storage volume sold is about 4 GWh and 120 GW. A major problem of this technology is the limited potential for further technical or economic improvements. With lithium ion batteries becoming technically more favorable and having significant potential for cost reduction there does not seem to be a medium-term future for NiMH batteries. Lithium batteries are ideally suited for automotive use, for both electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. For the hybrid vehicles a good choice might be the lithium-titanate battery because of its high cycle stability and power density. With rising battery capacities for more advanced hybrid types, the relatively low energy density of the lithium-titanate batteries has a bigger effect on the total car weight that results in a higher energy demand. Therefore
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