Cognitive Exam #2 Questions

20 hours later outside of the scanner there was a

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“dirty.” 20 hours later outside of the scanner there was a recognition test for the same 200 words plus 200 foils (similar words not seen in scanner). They had to respond by saying the word was old or new. Davichi measured % activation change for items correctly recognized VERSUS forgotten items. The hippocampus showed almost equal activation for both while the perirhinal cortex showed much more activation for recognized words than forgotten words. Emotional events are remembered more vividly but not always better. The amygdala shows greater activity for emotionally charged words i.e. swear words or violent words, which are remembered better. However, for events like 9/11 people often report a higher confidence in their memory but show a lack of accurate recall. Over time there could be source confusion of what they actually saw vs what was played in the media. Flashbulb Memories: Talarico & Rubin showed that the memories of 9/11 decreased with time just as steadily as the memory of normal days surrounding the event, although participants reported their belief that their memories for 9/11 must be better than the average days surrounding the event (though that was not true). Loftus and coworkers demonstrated the Power of Suggestion through Misleading Postevent Information by playing a scene of an accident then having the subjects fill out a questionnaire. If their questionnaire had words like “smashed” vs just “hit” they would estimate the car was going at a faster mph and that there was broken glass (when there really wasn’t) Errors in Eye witness testimony was also demonstrated by Wells & Bradfield-shown a clip of a hold up and asked to identify the shooter from a line up even though he was not present. This occurs because during high arousal our focus is too narrow (i.e. subjects focused on the biologically relevant piece of information: the gun) Question #2 2. Knowledge. Describe how cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and neuropsychology have contributed to our understanding of how the following concepts are stored and used: hammer, robin, ostrich, mother, and devil.
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What? - Knowledge is organized into concepts: definitions don’t work because not everything is the same definition - Classical view - Know the definition of something (is something a member or non member, does every one must have this feature (singly necessary) or does every one that has this is a member (jointly sufficient)) - The word “bachelor”, pope vs unmarried adult male - The problem is that there are no defining properties but rather properties that are “typical” of the group (i.e, birds can fly typically, but penguins are birds and can’t fly) - vs. the Probabilistic Views (Prototypes, Defining and characteristic features, exemplars) - Concepts are stored into memory and used - Prototype approach is all about finding the average case (high prototypicality vs.
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  • Spring '13
  • HiramBrownell
  • visual cortex

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