Comfortable raising concerns and were fearing loss of

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comfortable raising concerns and were fearing loss of job/potential promotions if they brought issues to management. The culture was not conducive to empowerment or employee focused (Kuppler, 2014). Relationships The leadership style at GM and the decisions that were made allowed the ignition switch to go into production are directly correlated. In the case of GM’s leadership using the authoritarian management style, employees were not necessarily in a position to question the power of authority, nor did they want to question their superiors. Decisions were typically made as a group, as there were numerous committees noted in the Valukas (2014) report. However, actual responsible parties that could make decisions were not easily identifiable (Kuppler, 2014). In addition, strong cohesion among the employees in their decision to not speak up about the safety concerns is also seen within the GM culture. This type of group thinking allows for the ignoring of problems and the seclusion of those employees who think differently than the group (University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing, 2017). Although. as employees became more ingrained into the ineffective culture the more they adapted to take on the same views as the
MILESTONE ONE: THE GM CULTURE CRISIS 9 existing group to ignore these ignition safety concerns (Perkins, & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). Additionally, employees that potentially wanted to speak up witnessed one of their fellow employee’s termination, for which they believed to be directly related to bringing up concerns with management (PBS News Hour, 2014). Internal Culture The internal culture at GM was disastrous not just for the employees and the reputation of the company but to the thirteen people that died due to the ignition switch failures. Culture embodies many things including the design of office space, dress codes, and behavior rituals. These factors do not make up an organizations entire culture however they are may provide insight in the values and beliefs of an organization. Culture also has a lifecycle starting from when the company is founded and moves to growth when it starts to create its strategy to compete in the marketplace with its competitors. Once an organization moves to maturity it is very difficult to shift and change the culture as values and beliefs are deeply ingrained in the organization. Lastly, an organization has hit its peak and slowly declines. In addition, the GM culture exhibits traits that the integration perspective is prominent. In this perspective there is agreement across the organization about the values and beliefs even if personal views are not unanimous (Perkins, & Arvinen-Muondo, 2013). Examples Employees perceptions from management influenced their behavior as demonstrated through the “GM Nod” and the “GM Salute.” Both of these behavioral rituals enabled the culture that employees did not need to follow through on items and lack of responsibility for ones actions. In the years leading up to the crisis, GM was in the mature state. They were a well- established company with their beliefs and values ingrained upon their workforce. These beliefs

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