Infant Nutritional Needs • Fat • Unlike adults, about 40-50% of energy content for infants should be from dietary fat • Vitamins and Minerals (per kg/day) Vitamins Minerals A 5 x adult Ca 3 x adult D 7.5 x adult Fe 5 x adult E 3 x adult C 5 x adult
Vitamins and minerals • Fluoride: • Helps prevent and reduce dental caries • Content is low in breastmilk • DRI: • Birth to 6 months: 0.1mg • 7 to 12 months: 0.5mg • Supplementation may be indicated in breastfed babies or those in area with low fluoride water 18
Vitamins and minerals • Vitamin D: • Essential role in bone mineralization, calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, and regulates genes associated with immune response and cellular growth • AI is 400 IU • Breastmilk only has 22 IU per litter • Recommendation: all breastfed infants should receive 400 IU supplement (or lactating woman needs to consume 6400 IU) 19
Vitamins and minerals • Sodium • Important regulator of fluid balance • Major component of extracellular fluid • AI: • Birth to 6 months – 120 mg • 7 to 12 months – 370 mg • Breastmilk and formula both have adequate sodium 20
Vitamins and minerals • Lead • Not a nutrient, but may interfere with iron and calcium status during infant • Elevated blood lead levels have a neurotoxic effect, and linked to intellectual and behavioral functioning deficits • Often comes from drinking water (lead pipes) • AAP recommends screening at 9-12 months 21
Vitamins and minerals • Iron • Infants are at risk for iron deficiency because of rapid growth in first year • From 4-12 months, blood volume doubles • Infant stores usually sufficient until solid foods introduced • 4-6 months begin to deplete iron stores • Solid food sources of iron important • Stores reflect maternal stores • Requirements: • Birth to 6 months – AI is 0.27 mg/day • 7 to 12 months – RDA is 11 mg/day 22
What should infants eat? Recommendations
Birth to 6* months • *4-6 months – many recommendations recommend starting solids at 6 months, but some still say 4-6 months • Should only be given breastmilk or formula during this time, no need for any other fluids (water) or any solid foods • Recommendations: • Formula • AAP: “ On average, your baby should take in about 2½ ounces (75 mL) of formula a day for every pound (453 g) of body weight . But he probably will regulate his intake from day to day to meet his own specific needs. So instead of going by fixed amounts, let him tell you when he's had enough. If he becomes fidgety or easily distracted during a feeding, he's probably finished. If he drains the bottle and continues smacking his lips, he might still be hungry.” • No more than 32 ounces/day • Breastfeeding • Feed on demand • If expressed milk, no more than 32 ounces/day
Formula Feeding • Formula preparation • Purchased as ready-to-serve, liquid concentrate or powder • Typically modified cow milk or soy based formula • Different in fat and protein composition than human milk •
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- Spring '14