Infant Nutritional Needs Fat Unlike adults of energy content for

Infant nutritional needs fat unlike adults of energy

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Infant Nutritional Needs Fat Unlike adults, about 40-50% of energy content for infants should be from dietary fat Vitamins and Minerals (per kg/day) Vitamins Minerals A 5 x adult Ca 3 x adult D 7.5 x adult Fe 5 x adult E 3 x adult C 5 x adult
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Vitamins and minerals Fluoride: Helps prevent and reduce dental caries Content is low in breastmilk DRI: Birth to 6 months: 0.1mg 7 to 12 months: 0.5mg Supplementation may be indicated in breastfed babies or those in area with low fluoride water 18
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Vitamins and minerals Vitamin D: Essential role in bone mineralization, calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, and regulates genes associated with immune response and cellular growth AI is 400 IU Breastmilk only has 22 IU per litter Recommendation: all breastfed infants should receive 400 IU supplement (or lactating woman needs to consume 6400 IU) 19
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Vitamins and minerals Sodium Important regulator of fluid balance Major component of extracellular fluid AI: Birth to 6 months – 120 mg 7 to 12 months – 370 mg Breastmilk and formula both have adequate sodium 20
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Vitamins and minerals Lead Not a nutrient, but may interfere with iron and calcium status during infant Elevated blood lead levels have a neurotoxic effect, and linked to intellectual and behavioral functioning deficits Often comes from drinking water (lead pipes) AAP recommends screening at 9-12 months 21
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Vitamins and minerals Iron Infants are at risk for iron deficiency because of rapid growth in first year From 4-12 months, blood volume doubles Infant stores usually sufficient until solid foods introduced 4-6 months begin to deplete iron stores Solid food sources of iron important Stores reflect maternal stores Requirements: Birth to 6 months – AI is 0.27 mg/day 7 to 12 months – RDA is 11 mg/day 22
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What should infants eat? Recommendations
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Birth to 6* months *4-6 months – many recommendations recommend starting solids at 6 months, but some still say 4-6 months Should only be given breastmilk or formula during this time, no need for any other fluids (water) or any solid foods Recommendations: Formula AAP: “ On average, your baby should take in about 2½ ounces (75 mL) of formula a day for every pound (453 g) of body weight . But he probably will regulate his intake from day to day to meet his own specific needs. So instead of going by fixed amounts, let him tell you when he's had enough. If he becomes fidgety or easily distracted during a feeding, he's probably finished. If he drains the bottle and continues smacking his lips, he might still be hungry.” No more than 32 ounces/day Breastfeeding Feed on demand If expressed milk, no more than 32 ounces/day
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Formula Feeding Formula preparation Purchased as ready-to-serve, liquid concentrate or powder Typically modified cow milk or soy based formula Different in fat and protein composition than human milk
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