liberties while making little attempt to reduce social inequities or improve living standards. These regimesexisted to enrich mil leaders. Their known for corruption. Scared of being overthrown they put thier money into mil hardware rather than econ dev. US and SU supplied arms to them.●Some mil leaders were radical ine econ and social reform like Gamal Abdul Nasser, who took power in egypt after mil coup in ‘52. Civilian politicians and corrupt khedival regime did little to improve living standards after indep. As conditions worsened and wealthy were not sharing $, rev forced emerged in egyptian society. ❏Programs that Nasser initiated to uplift the long oppressed egyptian masses●Radical movement after gaining power, Free Officers Movement; evolved from secret org est in egyptian army in the ‘30’s. They prepared to seize power in the name of a rev. It was loosely tied to Muslim brotherhood, another rev alternative to khedival regime. Muslim Brotherhood●The brotherhood founded by HAsan al Banna in 1928. He learned from Muhamad Abduh. He was in azhar University in Cairo afer WWI, he dev interest in scientific. He started hating wealthy minority of egyptians and euros who flourished in the midst of poverty. ●So to remedy these injustices he made the Muslim Brotherhood in ‘28. Even tho they focused on islam the main focus was social uplift and reforms. They promoted trade unions, built med clinics, educated
women and pushed for land reform. Al banna killed by khedive Frouq’s assassins in ‘49, but group contd to expand til ‘50’sToppling Khedive Farouk●Egypt defeat in arab-isreali war in ‘48 and clash w british over occupation of Suez canal zone in ‘52, discredited khedival and parliamentary regime gave officers chance. In july ‘52, mil coup toppled cporrupt khedive Farouq from throneRev had begun, REFORMS social●Installation of nasser and Free Officers, egyptians ruled themselves for 1st time since 6th century BCE. by‘54 all pol parties disbanded, even Muslim brotherhood, who attempted to kill NAsser. ●Nasser used dictatorlal powers to they had won in the coup to force through programs that they beleived would uplift egyptian masses. They intervened in all aspects of social life. Land reform measures were enacted, state financed edu thru college level was made available. State subsidies were used to lower the price of basic food staples like wheat and cooking oil. Econ●To est econ indep, stiff restrictions were placed on foriegn investment. He embakred on interventionist foriegn policy that stressed struggle to destroy the newly est Isreali state, forge arab unity, and stir socialist rev in nieghboring nations. His greatest foreign policy coup was in ‘56; he rallied international opinion to finally oust the british and french allies from suez canal zone. Was backed by US and SU●Land reform efforts corrupted by bureaucracy and clever strategies made my landlords to keep thier land.