Prenatal development – What goes on from conception to birth. (Not important on test in detail) o Teratogens – (Not in textbook) Any mal-adapted situation that can affect the pregnant mother. Ex: Illness. More precisely, anything that affects the baby while the mother is pregnant. Most critical during first trimester – this is when the brain is developing. Brain of normal baby vs. Brain of baby with FAS. The spinal cord develops before the brain. After the spinal cord develops, neurons begin developing and will eventually be part of the brain, crawl up spinal cord and stop where they need to. o Teratogens disrupt this migration. This makes it so that the neurons are displaced. o Under migration – neurons stop before they get to where they’re supposed to be! o Overmigration – Caused by radiation, neurons reach the destination then keep growing. Childhood physical development – Focused on changes that involve the brain. o Motor development – Control and fine motor skills develop throughout childhood. Despite practice, the part of the brain responsible for these skills must develop first. Changes according to the changes within the brain. o Perceptual development Visual and auditory Visual – When born, babies are very near- sighted, but it is what the baby requires to bond with parents. As they develop, they can see at further and further distances, still do not understand depth. o Depth cues begin when they begin to crawl. o Visual cliff test. Auditory - Is adult like from birth. They can react and coordinate to different sounds. Especially voices (mom’s voice). o Less perceptive to father’s voice, learns through familiarity. Cognitive development o Piaget’s stage theory – Began with animal development. Studied both cognitive and physical changes. Assimilation v. accommodation Assimilation - according to Piaget, the inclusion of a new event into an existing schema. Taking new information and trying to fit it into the schema. o Schema – World View o Ex: Bambi - Bambi learning about the birds, and sees butterflies, sees flowers calls them butterflies, learning, etc.
Accommodation - according to Piaget, the modification of schemas so that information inconsistent with existing schemas can be integrated or understood. o Ex: Bambi – the skunk o Correcting the schema to fit new information. o This is not easy for small children, keys into development. Stages Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational o Age ranges and characteristics Sensorimotor - the first of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, characterized by coordination of sensory information and motor activity, early exploration of the environment, and lack of language Age: Infancy to Age 2 Major characteristic: Coordination of motor movement with the sensations of the world around them.
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- Spring '19
- Developmental Psychology, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Paying attention