Both, however, buttressed their ethical arguments with assertions about the external validity (or invalidity) of the experimental results. They agreed, in other words, that a research study is in part justified by its valid findings—the knowledge to be gained. If the findings aren't valid, they can't justify the research at all. It is hard to justify any risk for human subjects, or even any expenditure of time and resources, if our findings tell us nothing about human behavior.Encouraging Appropriate ApplicationFinally, researchers must consider the uses to which their work is put. Although many researchers believe that personal values should be left outside the research setting, some feel that it is proper—even necessary—to concern themselves with the way their research is usedEducational researchers who conduct research on behalf of specific organizations—a school, a school system, a funding agency implementing a new program—may face additional difficulties when the organization, instead of the researcher, controls the final report and the publicity it receives. If organizational leaders decide that particular research results are unwelcome, the researcher's desire to have findings used appropriately and reported fully can conflict with contractual obligationsConclusionsHighlightsStanley Milgram's obedience experiments led to intensive debate about the extent to which deception could be tolerated in social science research and how harm to subjects should be evaluated. Egregious violations of human rights by researchers, including scientists in Nazi Germany and researchers in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, led to the adoption of federal ethical standards for research on human subjects. The 1979 Belmont Report developed by a national commission established three basic ethical standards for the protection of human subjects: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.
The 1979 Belmont Report developed by a national commission established three basic ethical standards for the protection of human subjects: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. The AERA's standards for the protection of human subjects require avoiding harm, obtaining informed consent, avoiding deception except in limited circumstances, and maintaining privacy and confidentiality. Educational research should maintain high standards for validity and be conducted and reported in an honest and open fashion Effective debriefing of subjects after an experiment can help reduce the risk of harm due to the use of deception in the experiment. ReferencesCheck, J., & Schutt, R. K. (2012). Research methods in education.Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Ltd.