Causes of obesity Energy intake energy expenditure Behavioural factors physical

Causes of obesity energy intake energy expenditure

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Causes of obesity Energy intake> energy expenditure Behavioural factors: physical activity, diet, eating patterns Genetic factors Medical factors: endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism), medication (corticosteroids) Others: ageing, smoking, pregnancy
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Susceptible groups Children where one of both parents are overweight or obese Socially deprived groups or those on low income Ethnic minority groups Those with low levels of education People with learning difficulties
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Is Obesity a Public Health problem?
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Relative risk of health problems associated with obesity Greatly increased (RR >3): NIDDM, gall bladder disease, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, breathlessness, sleep apnoea Moderately increased (RR 2-3): CHD, hypertension, osteoarthritis (knees), hyperuricaemia and gout Slightly increased (RR 1-2): Cancers (breast, endometrial, colon), polycystic ovary syndrome, impaired fertility, back pain
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Nutrition transition Obesity rates associated with economic development of a country In poor societies, the more affluent have a higher prevalence of obesity As societies develop, more affluent groups have lower obesity
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We live in increasingly obesogenic environments… “…resulting from a multitude of genetic, biological, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental factors that affect both sides of the energy balance equation…” -(US Food and Nutrition Board, 2005)
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Obesogenic environments Energy intake (dietary behaviours and patterns) affordability of food eating out convenience foods food deserts Energy expenditure (physical activity) Cars desk jobs TV internet
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