Learning through this perspective is taking on through role of performance - Learning through observational, by watching or observing others - May perform at a later date and time or never perform at all, want to fit in and say or do something to react in a certain way - Invalid trial and error - Difference between observing and learning - Involves trial and error but mostly performance In 1960s, bandura - Experiment of the bobo doll - Example of observational researcher - What he did was set up environment with someone who was adult caregiver, and adult was aggressively acting towards the doll - What will child do when placed with the bobo doll - Used female participants to use for the experiment to attack the bobo doll Gender socialization - The learning expectations about how to behave related to one’s gender - Learn through socialization with primary and secondary groups - Children are often treated differently base on gender - Gender roles learned by age 2 Racial socialization - Anywhere between age 3 and 6 - ethnicity is important facet to one’s identity - Ethnicity is a care part of this concept - children use race as a way to include or exclude others - symbolic through discourse and language Linguistic competence - Phonology- sound system - Lexicon- words, dictionary
- Grammar- how to combine words and sentences that are coherent and make a point to talk to others - Stage 1: pre-speech- this tends to be noises and motions - Stage 2: 10-14 months, see language developed into actual words - Stage 3: 18-22 months is capacity for sentences and words and placed together - Stage 4: 2 years of age grammaticizing 24-30 months - Sometimes we have internal dialogue, ability to have internal dialogue is what helps us develop out linguistics, we tend to string together different words and sentences - Gendered language- can be stereotypical Cognitive competence - Ability to categorize and develop ways to act which is known as schemas - Individuals can sort and make sense of world around them - Verbal and non-verbal communication is part of this process Moral development - What is moral development? - Occurs when a person can assess and make ethical and moral judgment - Able to evaluate our behavior - If it compares to other values, norms and beliefs - If we can see right from wrong, hence we do something have a gray zone - Rationale for moral behavior: self-assess and ask why we act this way - Reason we ask this is we have develop capacity of morality Piaget - Cognition theorist - Moral development 3 stages - Stage 1: learned to learn of social cognitive and motor skills - Stage 2: children tend to respect authority and obey whoever the figure is, see moral development become shaped - Stage 3: learn there is arbitrariness between right and wrong, rules have some flexibility, look at actions based on the intent Piaget - 3 bases for moral judgement - Amount of farm/benefit - Actors intentions - Application of agree upon rules of norms Kolbergs moral development - 1. Preconventional morality: refers to external physical consequences of action, don’t have sense
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- Winter '18
- Erica Speakman