Immigrants only and was never extended to blacks and

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immigrants only and was never extended to blacks and mestizos, Asians, or natives. In Brazil, the notion of mixture j the. that we are a nation coi;iposed o_f ID;ee whites'. Indians blacks and j which, m turn, can he translated mto "whitenmg. 1his is m sharp contrast with the United States which, m the words j ofTaguieff, has created a "mixophobic nationality." l Guimaraes draws a comparison between the American and the Brazilian system of race relations. ! On the meaning of being white in the United States, see Hollinger (2000). l Of particular interest here is the fact that in a survey conducted in the 1940s, Latinos were identified in the United Statei l primarily by dark sldn color (Torres-Saillant). l It is interesting to note that being Latino is currently a sort of wave coming to Brazil through the mass media (TV and I radio, particularly by way of music). But this is a Latino type as constructed in the United States and, more specifically, ! in Miami. In this sense, I dare say that Latin pop music, which is as Latin as it is American, has drawn Brazil closer 10 i "Latinity." ! But the choice of adopting one·term or the other can reveal interesting preferences. As Torres (1998) noted, the term I Hispanic is generally adopted in Florida; in California, rhe terms Latino and Chicano are used; and in New York, all . three apply (see Shoris, 1992). There is also the partisan gap: Democrats adopt Latino, while Republicans use Hispanic, All these names and contexts have their own histories and distinct political meanings and this is obviously not simply 3 ! matter of denomination. I See, for example, Padillia, Oboler, Jones-Correa, Bonilla et al., and Suarez Orozco (2000). 011 how Brazilians might I contribute to the debate, see Marrow. ! In her research with Brazilians in Boston, Marrow (2000) submits different notions ofLatinism and Hlspanicity. I The word "Hispano" doesn't exist in the Portuguese language; what exists is "hispanico" which means: 1. From, I belonging to, or relative to Hispanla; or 2. From, belonging to, or relative to Spain or a Spaniard. It is interesting to• note that Brazilians claim to not be familiar with the term "Hispano" prior to coming to the United States (Rolanda I 1985). The differentiation between Latinos and Hispanics made by Brazilian immigrants is also noted by Margolis (1998} · Penlia: "Portuguese both distinguishes Brazilians from Hispanic and includes Brazilians as Latinos. Even though and Portuguese are different languages, they resemble one another, both presenting similarities, even inflection, facilitates communication" (Penha 381). . Margolis (1993; 1998) and Oboler also emphasize the geographic variable present in the Latino concept. 1 In research with second-generation Brazilian immigrants in Boston, Marrow found two points of similarity: and geographic. While the linguistic matter is obvious, the geographic one is not so simple. The author takes as referen1( the division between North America and Latin America. I believe, however, that the main reference adopted by Braziliani I lies between South America and the other Americas, that is North and Central America.

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