1 min 1 at 14 and 16 kmh 1 between men and women ADI Adidas Adizero Adios 3 NVF

1 min 1 at 14 and 16 kmh 1 between men and women adi

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−1 ·min −1 ) at 14 and 16 km·h −1 between men and women ADI Adidas Adizero Adios 3, NVF Nike Zoom Vaporffy, NZM Nike Zoom Matumbo 3, NVF + Nike Zoom Vaporffy plus weight to match of ADI Men (%) Women (%) Effect size 14 km·h −1  ADI vs. NVF 4.63 ± 1.26 4.38 ± 1.70 0.19  NZM vs. NVF 3.24 ± 1.01 3.05 ± 1.37 0.13  NVF + vs. NVF 1.59 ± 0.86 1.48 ± 0.89 0.12  ADI vs. NZM 1.58 ± 1.12 1.13 ± 1.25 0.38  ADI vs. NVF + 3.04 ± 1.25 2.90 ± 1.84 0.11  NZM vs. NVF + 1.46 ± 1.47 1.77 ± 1.24 0.20 16 km·h −1  ADI vs. NVF 4.49 ± 1.29 3.97 ± 0.96 0.37  NZM vs. NVF 2.29 ± 1.35 2.04 ± 1.44 0.17  NVF + vs. NVF 1.16 ± 0.55 1.34 ± 0.79 0.30  ADI vs. NZM 2.20 ± 1.27 1.93 ± 1.83 0.19  ADI vs. NVF + 3.33 ± 1.29 2.64 ± 1.21 0.50  NZM vs. NVF + 1.13 ± 1.36 0.70 ± 1.37 0.29
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339 Running Economy in Flats vs. Spikes Table 5 Biomechanical measures for each of the four shoe conditions at three running velocities for men and women NZM Nike Zoom Matumbo 3, ADI Adidas Adizero Adios 3, NVF Nike Zoom Vaporffy, NVF + Nike Zoom Vaporffy plus weight to match of the ADI 14 km·h −1 15 km·h −1 (Women) NZM ADI NVF + NVF NZM ADI NVF + NVF Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Contact time (ms) 221 ± 17 230 ± 40 227 ± 17 234 ± 40 227 ± 16 231 ± 42 227 ± 17 230 ± 42 220 ± 36 222 ± 35 220 ± 42 221 ± 40 Flight time (ms) 121 ± 25 114 ± 18 117 ± 26 114 ± 18 120 ± 23 117 ± 21 119 ± 24 115 ± 18 117 ± 20 117 ± 20 123 ± 19 123 ± 20 Stride rate (strides.min −1 ) 87.5 ± 5.0 88.4 ± 9.5 87.5 ± 5.3 87.4 ± 9.8 87.5 ± 4.9 87.4 ± 9.2 87.7 ± 4.7 87.6 ± 9.2 90.4 ± 8.5 89.4 ± 8.0 88.4 ± 9.2 88.3 ± 9.6 Stride length (m) 2.69 ± 0.16 2.51 ± 0.13 2.68 ± 0.16 2.53 ± 0.12 2.70 ± 0.15 2.53 ± 0.14 2.69 ± 0.15 2.52 ± 0.13 2.66 ± 0.12 2.72 ± 0.13 2.70 ± 0.13 2.70 ± 0.13 16 km·h −1 18 km·h −1 (Men) NZM ADI NVF + NVF NZM ADI NVF + NVF Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Contact time (ms) 205 ± 16 213 ± 40 212 ± 20 215 ± 36 209 ± 18 211 ± 38 209 ± 17 211 ± 39 194 ± 16 198 ± 17 197 ± 15 197 ± 14 Flight time (ms) 126 ± 22 124 ± 19 120 ± 22 123 ± 18 125 ± 22 127 ± 18 126 ± 22 127 ± 20 125 ± 17 125 ± 19 127 ± 17 127 ± 18 Stride rate (strides.min −1 ) 90.8 ± 4.8 90.8 ± 10.4 89.8 ± 5.1 90.0 ± 9.8 89.5 ± 4.8 89.9 ± 9.7 89.8 ± 4.7 90.0 ± 10.2 94.2 ± 4.8 93.0 ± 4.1 93.0 ± 4.0 93.0 ± 3.8 Stride length (m) 2.96 ± 0.16 2.83 ± 0.11 2.97 ± 0.15 2.85 ± 0.11 3.00 ± 0.16 2.86 ± 0.11 3.00 ± 0.16 2.87 ± 0.11 3.19 ± 0.16 3.23 ± 0.15 3.23 ± 0.14 3.23 ± 0.14 our study the NZM spike shoe weighed ~ 100 g (50%) less than the ADI shoe, and rates of VO 2 were 1.4% lower in the NZM. Interestingly, the NZM spike shoe weighed ~ 58% of the NVF shoe (difference 70–100 g less), and VO 2 was, on average, 2.6% less in the NVF shoe, indicating that properties of shoes other than mass can be substantially inffuential. Similarly, despite only a 30–35 g difference between the NVF and NVF + shoe conditions, rates of VO 2 were ~ 1.2–1.5% different across all running speeds, which is an important consideration when comparing our results with those of Hoogkamer et al. [ 7 ], where the NVF + and ADI shoes would be the closest shoe conditions for comparison in our study (Table  3 ). Hoogkamer et al. [ 7 ] suggest the midsole properties of the Nike Vaporffy shoes provide the best explanation for the metabolic energy savings. In addition to weight, shoe cushioning and longitudinal bending stiffness have each been shown to affect the energetic cost of running [ 32 , 33 ].
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