SCIE 211 Module 2 Study Guide_12wk.docx

Not changed by sample size and results in a mistaken

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can happen by accident. Not changed by sample size and results in a mistaken estimate of the true effect. 1. Selection : selective differences between the study groups that impacts the relationship between exposure and outcome. Happens when groups don't come from the same study base and/or are not representative of the larger populations they come from. a. Self-Selection Bias : people come to the study because of publicity of the study. They may have reasons for joining that study may be associated with the outcome. b. Loss to Follow-up/Withdrawal Bias : When there is a differential loss to follow-up that is related to the exposure status c. Exclusion Bias : Potential participants are excluded differently in either study group or control group. Exclusion needs to be done before hand. d. Non-response Bias : When people who don't respond to a call to be in a study are different from those who do. e. Interviewer Bias : without formal training interviewers may inadvertently make inappropriate selection choices by misinterpreting the information they receive from selection interviews. ( ) 2. Information/Measurement Bias : something is wrong with the data collection. a. Instrumentation : using an uncalibrated instrument for a whole study b. Misdiagnosis : a diagnostic test that is consistently inaccurate will result in information bias. c. Recall Bias : when those with the outcome have a gender likelihood of recalling the exposure. d. Reporting Bias : When people are aware they are being studied they can change the way they report/behave e. Spurious Relationship : a mathematical relationship in which two events or variables have no direct causal relationship, yet it may be wrongly inferred that they do, due to either coincidence or the presence of a certain third, unseen factor. (Wikipedia) Sampling Process Bias’s
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3. Question Bias : The phasing of questions can influence the answers one receives. 4. Question Order Bias : Asking general questions after more specific questions causes people to lower their approval rating. Specific questions remind respondents of issues of which they are critical of the presidential performance and leads to a lower rating of approval. (Battersby, p. 47) 5. Context Bias : Polls/surveys that include general introductions to the survey, which is used by the pollster to create a context for the survey. These introductions often have a strong influence on how people will answer. (Battersby, p. 48) 6. Loaded question : a question that contains a controversial or unjustified assumption. (Wikipedia) 7. Respondent Lying/Social Desirability Bias : just as it implies, the respondent lies on the survey/poll. This may be to make them look better in the eyes of the pollster. 8. Leading Questions : bias respondents by subtly directing them toward particular answers. ( - and-loaded-words ) 9. Filter Question : may be used to direct respondents to skip the questions that do not apply to them.
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