When reading a text then reading comprehension and

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when reading a text, then reading comprehension and consequently mastering another language will become difficult. According to schema theory , people make sense of new experiences and the world by activating the mental representations or schemata stored in their memory. New experiences and information are interpreted according to how it fits into their schemata. Information that does not fit may be misunderstood or miscomprehended. Key Concepts Definition A schema (plural: schemata) is an abstract structure of knowledge, a mental representation stored in memory upon which all information processing depends. It may represent knowledge at different levels, e.g. cultural truths, linguistic knowledge or ideologies. They are mental templates that represent a person’s knowledge about people, situations or objects, and which originate from prior knowledge or experiences. How is schema activated? A schema may be perceived as a structure consisting of a series of spaces, some of which are filled and others empty. When faced with a situation or trying to comprehend something new, the appropriate schema is activated and used to infer, produce or accommodate new information for the empty slots. If the input is assimilated into existing schema without making any changes, it is called “accretation”; “tuning” on the other hand takes place when the existing schema is inadequate and needs to be modified; while “restructuring” is the process of creating new schema. Activation of schema can take place from the whole to the part, that is ‘’top-down’’ or it may be ‘’conceptually driven’’ from the parts to the whole, that is "bottom-up" and also known as "data driven". For example, if on seeing the word "car", one thinks of the parts, e.g. bumper, dashboard, boot etc., that is "top-down" or "conceptually driven”. Types of schema Social schema Social schema is generated by an event (going to a restaurant), that consists of a script and scenes (booking a table, arriving at the restaurant ordering food etc.); props (menu); enabling conditions (money); roles (waiter, client); and outcomes (not feeling hungry). Social cognition researchers are particularly interested in studying what happens when the schema activated conflicts with existing norms. Ideological schema Ideological schema is generated by attitudes or opinions on relevant social or political issues, for example abortion and ecology.
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Formal schema Formal schema is related to the rhetorical structure of a written text, such as differences in genre or between narrative styles and their corresponding structures. Linguistic schema Linguistic schema includes the decoding features a person needs in order to understand how words are organized and fit together in a sentence (be it spoken or written discourse).
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