-century urban immigrants identified in the map above most commonly relied on support from
the federal government
the philanthropy of business leaders
“New York is, I firmly believe, the most charitable city in the world. Nowhere is there so eager a readiness to help.
When it is known that the help is worthily wanted; nowhere are such armies of devoted workers, nowhere such
abundance of means ready to the hand of those who know the need and how rightly to supply it. Its poverty, its slums,
and its suffering are the result of unprecedented growth with the consequent disorder and crowding, and the common
penalty of metropolitan greatness.
The Day Nurseries, the numberless Kindergartens and charitable schools in the
poor quarters, the Fresh Air Funds, the thousands and one charities that in one way or another reach the homes and
the lives of the poor with sweetening touch
How the Other Half Lives,
Much of the urban reform described above was carried out by