Alternate species concepts exist that might lead to

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-Alternate species concepts exist that might lead to different classifications of organisms (for example, the ‘recognition species concept’, which suggests that reproductive isolation may only be a side effect of populations having diverged for other reasons, such as signals associated with mate choice). - Barriers that establish reproductive isolation can be removed (or created) by human intervention, even in wild populations. -Establishing whether ‘reproductive isolation’ is present at all can be difficult in the natural world. Some species have only been distinguishable through population-level genetic analyses. Sometimes populations of organisms (such as gorillas) look and act very different from each other, but are genetically identical, indicating that they interbreed (or did so in the very recent past). -Stable hybrid zones exist in the natural world (for example, between several species of baboons across Africa, and among amphibians and among songbirds in many places worldwide) indicating that species boundaries are not always clear-cut. -Clines (variation in genotype or phenotype across a geographic area) may take the form of two reproductively isolated populations at either end that are connected by a series of freely interbreeding populations. -We often cannot evaluate whether fossil specimens might be reproductively isolated. (Up to 3 points for explaining why species are (or aren’t) a naturally occurring phenomenon; need to include at least some of the following concepts)
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Anth 200g Midterm 1 Key Fall 2010 Many examples of natural populations do meet Meyr’s definition (e.g., Darwin’s finches). Various pre- and post-mating isolating factors can help to maintain distinctions between biological species in nature. However, species are not necessarily a naturally occurring phenomenon. Meyr’s definition explicitly applies only to natural populations which is a major limitation of his concept. No species concept is universally applicable or useful under all circumstances. “Species” designations can be seen as an artificial structure that human beings use to understand a somewhat unstructured natural world. In nature it can be difficult to identify where to draw species lines (e.g., clines as described above). Species also do not have to occur in nature; reproductive isolation between two groups of the same species can be established in the laboratory (such as in swiftly breeding organisms like fruit flies) or through artificial selection (for example, in dog or pigeon breeds). Question #2. Describe four different types of mating systems that primates live in, as described in lecture. Give an example of a primate group that lives in each type. (1.5 pts per full description of the mating system. 1 pt for an incomplete/vague description of the mating system. 0.5 pt for naming the mating system but providing little or no description. 1 pt per example for each of the four mating systems. 10 possible points.) Solitary—females live with dependent offspring in their own territories, males
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