5 what would the minimum word codon size be if the

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5. What would the minimum word (codon) size be if the number of different bases in the mRNA were (a) two? (b) three? (c) five? Give your reasoning. Assume that all other features of the translation of mRNA into protein are the same as what we now know. 6. Code Crackerjacks (a) 5´–CAU–3´ is a codon in mRNA that specifies the amino acid histidine (His) in position 58 in the α chain of human hemoglobin. (1) What is the corresponding anticodon in tRNA? (2) What is the corresponding triplet in the coding DNA strand? (3) What is the corresponding triplet in the template DNA strand? (b)The following is a pedigree of amino acid substitutions that have been observed in the
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Evolutionary Genetics α and β chains of human hemoglobin. The direction of change is indicated by an arrow. Using the codon chart, propose codons for these amino acids that would explain the observed substitutions in the form of single nucleotide changes. 8. From DNA sequencing studies the nucleotide sequences of three short adjacent fragments (1, 2, 3) that comprise a short bacterial gene were determined. They are shown below, grouped as codons. (a) In the blanks below write out the RNA sequences coded by each template strand sequence and show the polarity of the RNA. (b) What is the correct order of the three fragments? Explain why there is only one order. (c) Using the codon chart, write out the amino acid sequence, indicating the amino and carboxy termini of the polypeptide chain. (c) NH 2 –Met–Cys–Gly–Leu–Ser–Arg–Tyr–Lys–Gly–Cys–Gly–COOH 18. A gene makes a polypeptide 30 amino acids long containing an alternating sequence of phenylalanine and tyrosine. What are the sequences of nucleotides corresponding to this sequence in (a) the DNA strand which is read, assuming phe = UUU and tyr = UAU in mRNA? (b) the DNA strand which is not read? (c) tRNA?
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