Chp 4 Measuring physical Activity Laboratory measures of energy expenditure

# Chp 4 measuring physical activity laboratory measures

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Chp 4- Measuring physical Activity Laboratory measures of energy expenditure : assess caloric expenditure or the amount of energy it takes for a person to be physical active, to breath, to circulate blood and to digest food Total energy expenditure = is the sum of physical activity expenditure (specific to physical activity), the thermic effect of food (digestion) and basal metabolic energy expenditure (breathing and circulating) TEF= 10% PAEE = 25 % BMEE = 65% Double labelled water technique: measuring total energy expenditure by drinking water with radioisotope and observing urine samples for oxygen and hydrogen and with this they are able to estimate carbon dioxide production Accelerometers: measure the magnitude and direction of acceleration Pedometers : Step counters Direct observation techniques: using trained observers and researchers to monitor physical activity Self report instruments: surveys, questionnaires, diaries, interviews, etc. Surveillance: observation, counting, surveys, analysis and collecting data Cancer: Prevalence-Commonness Metastases- the spread of disease from it’s origin into other parts of the body Studies have suggested that Physical activity can reduce your risk of colon and breast cancer
Cancer-diseases with processes associated with uncontrolled abnormal cell growth and many cancers the cause may never be known Interaction between our environment and genetics can trigger these changes Research has demonstrated that a lot of cancer is due to health behaviours therefor could be preventable The multistage model of carcinogenesis: Normal cell-converted cells-precancerous cells-Cancerous cells pg 142 in textbook Step 1: initiation- due to a spontaneous change, external cause or genetic mutation Step 2: Promotion- additional genetic changes result in a cell becoming precancerous Step 3: Progression- cancerous cells become tumors This model is important because it allows us to do studies by making hypothesis based on the model. This is how we can begin studies based around the prevention of cancer by means of physical activity Risk factors for cancer: Physical inactivity Obesity Tobacco use Poor nutrient intake Excessive sun exposure Toxic environmental exposure Age Heredity Sex People who are physically active have 24% lower risk of developing colon cancer (refer to schellenbergs slides for Canadian study results) Breast cancer is another one they have studied (refer to schellenbergs slides for statistics) – you need about 45-60 min of brisk walking a day to reduce your risk of breast cancer Potential mechanisms through which physical activity lowers cancer risk: Avoidance of weight gain or weight loss Reduced insulin resistance Lower systemic low grade inflammation Lower colon transit time Lower production of sex hormones Improved immune function What improved in survival patients after incorporating physical activity into their life More upper and lower body strength Fatigue
Overall quality of life

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• Fall '17
• Shae Strachan
• Metabolic Syndrome, body fat percentage, elevated blood pressure
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